Initially the Muslims in Makkah were commanded to endure the oppression of the infidels and to exert efforts in learning Din. However, when their atrocities exceeded all limits of tolerance, the believers were forced to leave their homes. Even the Holy Prophet-SAAW had to migrate to Madinah where Jihad was enjoined. The believers were now permitted to retaliate wherever they are persecuted by the infidels.
Obligation Of Jihad Justified
Allah-SWT Commanded the believers to combat oppression, which denotes violation of His-SWT Commands. Since this situation shall always prevail in the society, Jihad shall continue to remain obligatory upon Muslims forever. This is why it was decreed "And fight them until there is no more mischief and worship is for Allah-SWT Alone". 193:2.
Jihad does not imply forcing people to Islam. However, it does mean that no one dare interfere in the Divine Commands and that His-SWT creation on His-SWT land is not persecuted. This injunction is backed by a Divme Promise, that whenever the believers will rise against oppression purely for His-SWT Pleasure; He-SWT shall exercise His-SWT Absolute Powers to help them. No matter how insignificant means or resources they may have, victory shall be theirs. This Divine Promise is valid forever just as is the obligation of Jihad. Starting from Badr and Uhad, right down to the present day Jihad of Afghanistan, the demonstration of this Promise can be seen with open eyes. The interesting aspect is that the infidel world itself believed in it after witnessing how a handful of believers rising from the Arabian Desert had swayed the entire world. The Jews, therefore, initiated such a Movement, whose basic pillar is negation of Jihad, which they believe stands suspended until their missing Imam reappears and provides the leadership. And the Christians initiated Mirzayiat in the sub continent, aimed at preventing Jihad. Ironically now a large religious group in our country has been mistaken, and suffer from a misconception that every problem will be solved by mere prayers, charity, and festivals. As a result they have no intentions to fight so they do not see the need to learn latest technology and strategies of warfare. This explains why Muslims are gradually alienating themselves from the latest inventions. And unwittingly, it is a help which the Muslims are providing to the non believers. May Allah-SWT protect, forgive and grant us the capacity to tread the right path!
So Allah-SWT declares that the believers are now allowed to fight their oppressors and are promised His-SWT full support, which indeed is a harbinger of victory. This declaration is followed by a description of atrocities inflicted upon the believers. Not only were they tortured and done to death but were even forced into exile. And their crime was that they believed in Allah-SWT as their Rabb-SWT , worshipped Him-SWT , and refused to obey anyone else against Him-SWT .
This indeed is a law that Allah-SWT creates circumstances to encounter any prevalent evil. Had this not been so, and had people been denied the right to defend themselves against oppression, the earth would have never witnessed the establishment of any Divine System. Neither would have the cloisters and churches of Christianity been established, nor the synagogues of Jews would have come into existence. All these were Islam in their own times, and were based on truth; interpolated by their very followers into heresy and polytheism later. And even the masaajid of the believers, wherein Allah-SWT ’s Zikr is continuously practised, would not have been spared by the non believers.
Masaajid And Zikr Of His-SWT Personal Name
The Quran has, in several Ayat, prescribed Zikr of His-SWT Personal Name. In this Ayah, for instance, the reason for the importance of masaajid is that Zikr of His-SWT Name is practised there in addition to five times obligatory Salat. This is because Zikr of His-SWT Personal Name is the only means which blesses the Qalb with a special bond, whereby a person feels the presence of Allah-SWT and worships while remaining conscious of his own humility. Every action taken in accordancc with Shari'ah is indeed Zikr Allah. Recitation of the Quran, Salat and His-SWT verbal praises are all Zikr-e-Lisani. Yet the importance of Zikr of His-SWT Personal Name is singular, with the additional condition of plenitude. This can be achieved only when the Qalb is initiated. Synonymously, the moving spirit behind every worship and every worship-place is Zikr-e-Qalbi.
Besides, Jihad is purely for Allah-SWT and for upholding His-SWT Din, so whoever sincerely undertakes it will certainly be helped by Him-SWT . Victory is inevitable to a Mujahid so long his intentions are purely to fight in Allah-SWT's Cause as distinct from any vested interests. Allah-SWT is the Most Powerful and prevails over everything. In other words, no power on earth can defeat where His-SWT succour prevails.
True believers are those who purely fight in the Cause of Allah-SWT after assuming authority and state power, emancipate people from the slavery of others, establish the system of Allah-SWT's worship on land, and enforce Zakat on wealth to safeguard others rights. They enjoin good and forbid evil. And, of course, the end result of all afiairs is with Allah-SWT . Therefore, let not the outward situation of Muslims beguile the non believers in assuming that their triumph is impossible, for Allah-SWT makes events move just the way He-SWT wants to accomplish whatever He-SWT Wills.
According to majority of the Commentators the practical application of this Ayah refers to the golden era of the first four Righteous Caliphs. Their Jihad was purely for Allah-SWT . They were blessed with victory, sway and power and they established the Islamic System on the vastest empire in the known history of mankind.
Implementation Of Islam And World History
The question raised today is that historically Islam practically remained enforced only during the era of the Righteous Caliphs while the remaining Muslim history is void of it. So it is not possible to enforce Islam now. A very-simple answer is that Islam is a Divine Code of Life, complete in all respect. It is the most comprehensive political, economic, moral, ethical, code of life applicable to entire mankind for all times to come across the globe. If someone argues that Islam cannot cater for the needs of modern times, then we will also have to acknowledge that it was never capable of giving mankind a peaceful welfare society based on equity. Obviously this cannot be accepted, as history- bears witness to the fact that when the entire world was ablaze in anguish, it was Islam that emerged as a saviour. It cleansed all forms of oppression and established justice and equity on the land. To say that it was possible then and not now is incorrect This is because Islam is a Divine System valid for all times. To refute this would tantamount to refuting Islam as a whole.
The argument that Islam was never implemented anywhere after the Righteous Caliphs, and that there were Governments of the Muslims but not Islamic Governments, is not based on facts. History has been subjected to Jewish interpolations. Otherwise, the distant past aside, even when the Mongols were playing havoc with the Muslims, Egypt enjoyed an Islamic Government under Baibrus, who defeated a famous Mongol General and displayed his organs on the portals of the city as a token of the defeat of falsehood. The Indian subcontinent had Islamic Government under Sultan Altutmish, who was dreaded so much that Halaku Khan did not dare cross the Indus River, fearing an encounter with him. Even the era of Aurangzeb Alamgir is worth noticing whose Fatawa-e-Alamgiri holds the status of a State Constitution. However, it is true, that many a froward also got hold of State power, who paid no heed to the Islamic Laws, and ruled at their free will. But it is wrong to assert that there never existed an Islamic Government.
The Holy Prophet-SAAW is being comforted that if the non believers are bent upon their own destruction both here and in the Akhirah by opposing him, he need not be aggrieved, because Allah-SWT has given every individual the right to choose. The preceding nations such as Prophet Nuh-AS or Ad and Thamud, or the nations of Prophets Ibrahim-AS and Lut-AS had also refuted the call of their Prophet-AS. The Peoples of Madyan or of the Pharaoh who denied the Prophethood of Musa-AS were given a fair chance to reform themselves but were punished when they insisted on denial of His-SWT Magnificence.
Many a town, once the habitats of transgressing nations, arrogant and powerful, are lying desolate. These were totally obliterated. First the ceilings caved in and then the walls collapsed on the debris. Many a well dug up by them in the settlements now lie in ruins while many a spectacular palaces and forts once the masterpieces of architectural excellence, with intricate engraved floral patterns, are covered with grime. Do the thinkers of today not see these symbols of admonition around? Alas, if only they had hearts capable of understanding!
Qalb, Its Vision, Hearing And Spiritual States
In other words, to know Allah-SWT or His-SWT Attributes and to gain His-SWT Cognition, Qalb is a basic requirement. This pumping station which is a muscular organ has within it a Divine subtlety, the Qalb, having power to comprehend, to behold and to listen. Obviously it can only understand or comprehend when it can behold and listen. Denial and disobedience divests this capability of the Qalb, depriving a person of His-SWT Cognition. That is why the Quran laments, ‘if only they had hearts to comprehend!’. Whereas brain caters for the needs of the physical body, the Ruh and its needs are the domain of Qalb. The Qalb of an infidel is void of comprehension, the hearing and the sight for the physical organs of hearing, the ears, hear only to serve the intellect and the brain, but have no opening to the Qalb. The infidel does have the physical eyes but the eyes of his Qalb are blind. It is this very Qalb whose eyes and the power to behold, whose ears and the power to hear, whose awareness and the passion of cognition form the basis of Din and serve as means of appreciating His-SWT Magnificence. The acquisition of these faculties and the search for an accomplished teacher in this field, who can initiate a seeker’s Qalb, is amongst the essentials of Din. This indeed is Tasawwuf and Suluk.
Now let us have a look at the evil effects of blindness of the subtle hearts. The infidels ask the Holy Prophet-SAAW that if doom is to befall them, he must let it come quickly. They obviously don't have a clue of its severity. They must be informed that they need not worry, as Allah-SWT will never violate His-SWT Word. They consider it to be far away, but according to the time frame of Akhirah a thousand years passing on the earth are equal to a single celestial day. So if a person lives for a hundred years, he has lived for only one tenth of a day, as the centre for administration of the Universal System is in the heavens, where the days are estimated as such. This is why it said that when Prophet Isa-AS will dcscend on earth, there would not be a marked difference in his age for even if two thousand years have gone past on earth since he left, only two days have passed where he now resides.
These infidels must see how many settlements had been reduced to ruins as punishment for disbelief. Numerous nations were destroyed, and many a tyrant who oppressed others were seized by Allah-SWT . Indeed, everyone has to eventually return to Him-SWT .