As for the awareness of Din. it had been inspired into every human being. Firstly, the Spirit is a native of 'Alam-e-Amr which is far exalted than the Alam-e-Khalq because it is directly related to the Divine Attributes. Then after creating the Spirits they were not left on their own, rather all individuals in the posterity of Prophet Aadam-AS were brought forth from their reins, their seed and made to testify: "Am I not your Rabb-SWT ?' All answered, "Yes! We do testify! And not only do we accept but bear witness." Thus they became witnesses upon their own selves.
Was Covenant from Spirit or also from the Physical Body?
The Commentators have dwelt at length whether the Covenant was taken only from the Spirits or from both the Spirits and the physical bodies together The quintessence of all the opinions has been summed up by Mufti Muhammad ShafiRUA . He writes that elements of the body were brought together in subtle form and united with the Spirits. Nothing is beyond the scope of the Powers of the Omnipotent Who has established a mini solar system in a single atom. The fact revealed in this Ayah that the Children of Aadam-AS were drawn from his loins also endorses the same view. The loins being at the centre of the physical body, it is here that the ingredients of a man's dependents are stored. The Spirits are not stored in the loins but from the time of creation reside in *Alam-e-Amr until their transfer into their respective bodies in the wombs of the mothers The Spirit by itself cannot disobey Allah-SWT, it is the darkness of the physical body which conceals the Majesty of Allaah-SWT from its vision. It is this darkness which blurs the vision of the Ruh also whereby the latter fails to see Divine Magnificence. Thus the inclusion of physical body to this Covenant was more important.
In short, from the loins of Prophet Aadam-AS was brought forth the seed of his children and in turn of those of the descendents to be born until the Doomsday. They were all gathered together and united with their respective Spirits. And with it, all were granted the power to speak and to discern the truth. Allaah-SWT manifested the excellence of His-SWT Being in the form of His-SWT Attribute of Providence and then asked His-SWT Creation: Is there anyone save Me-SWT worthy of being called as your Rabb-SWT ?
Confession of Allah-SWT's Providence
It is worth noticing that Allaah-SWT did not demand a confession of His-SWT Divinity but of His-SWT Providence. The reason is very obvious. When a person begins to attach hopes with anyone other than Allah-SWT, he also gives up His-SWT Obedience in favour of the one who is the focus of his hopes. However, if one strongly believes that his Rabb-SWT , that is, the Sole Provider of all his needs is Allah-SWT, he avoids heading in the wrong direction. And if an error is committed he immediately turns to Allaah-SWT seeking His-SWT Forgiveness. Therefore, on the Day of the Covenant, the oath was taken only on His-SWT Providence. Although on arrival in this arena of life, the memory failed but the seed had been sown in the human existence. A glance at the history of mankind shows that it has always practiced some rituals or the other in the name of religion. Even today those who are unaware of the true religion, do observe some customs and rituals in its name. Probably it is because of the seed of seeking Allah-SWT, sown through the Covenant unto mankind. This stimulant did perform its task. Although many failed to find guidance because the darkness of their deeds precluded them to hit the right track, yet the desire to seek Allaah-SWT is embedded in every human soul.
Pedigree Must be Assigned to Father
By the mention of the loins of fathers and not the wombs of mothers it has been clarified that the children must be assigned to the father. ''"his also causes piety in a society. Besides, the children inherit from their father not only the material assets but also often the moral and the spiritual values. But unfortunately in a situation whereby the declaration of the real father is no longer a requirement, sin and debauchery get a chance to flourish in the society. This is why the Holy Prophet-SW said that the child shall be assigned to the one on whose bed it is conceived i.e. in whose wedlock the woman is. And for the adulterers are the stones. If a woman conceives without wedlock she will be punished. First of all the Shi’ites produced illegitimate children by Mut'a This led to the creation of a generation . in Iran whose slogan was: "Mother known, father unknown”. Today this evil has become wide spread in the modern so-called civilized society of the West where women have many children without ever getting married. If it is made a legal requirement to assign the child to its lawful father it would eradicate the problem of illegitimate children from their society. Hence on die Day of the Covenant, the pedigree was assigned to the father; for he can remain concealed from the world but not from Allaah-SWT . Everyone was destined to have a father, whether by adopting the right or the wrong path is a separate issue.
Where did the Covenant Take Place?
According to Tafsir-e-Mazhari quoting Hadhrat ibn-e-AbbasRUA, supported by many scholars of Hadith, the Covenant was taken in the Plain of 'Arafat. Prophet Aadam-AS after his-AS decent from the Paradise arrived in 'Arafat or the Valley of N'aman where he was pardoned and began his new life. It was then that this Covenant was taken. This version is supported by very authentic evidence, although a report by Kalbi says that it was taken after the creation of Prophet Aadam-AS in the heavens. This Ayah highlights the virtues of taking an Oath of Allegiance; for sure it has a unique impact.
Oath of Allegiance and its Benefits
The Holy Prophet-SW took an Oath of Allegiance from the Ansar-RAU at 'Uqbah, and later many oaths were taken on important occasions. The Oath taken at Hudaibiyah finds a mention in the Quran. It was also taken when Makkah was conquered. This practice continued after the Holy Prophet-SW’s the era of the four righteous Caliphs-RAU and is carried on to date by the learned scholars. However, these oaths vary in nature. The issues on which such oaths are taken range from repenting on sin or on disbelief, to following and practicing Islam, to practicing piety, to choosing a ruler, to Jihad or to the attainment of spiritual states of the Qalb. The last one in the order is the oath taken by the Sufi saints.
So Allaah-SWT directs mankind to remember the Covenant lest they say on the Day of Judgement that they had forgotten it. Allah-SWT, the Most Gracious also created a sacred group of His-SWT Messengers-AS' s from whom He-SWT took an Oath of Allegiance and support for the Holy Prophet-SW. These noble personages reminded mankind of this promise through time and invited people repeatedly to their One and the Only Provider. These were Divine Favours, which reached the climax with the raising of the Holy Prophet-SW Only those shall fail to benefit from him who have drenched their souls in sin to such an extent that Allaah-SWT has denied them the opportunity to repent.
The mankind is also being told not to present the excuse that they were misled by their forefathers, who were responsible for the invention of all sorts of ungodly rituals, and polytheistic practices. Their plea for Mercy, based on the argument that they were not the inventors but just the followers will not be entertained, because Allah-SWT's Plan of directly introducing the entire mankind to His-SWT Greatness and Providence has forestalled their logics. He has instilled a passionate yearning for Him-SWT in the Qulub. Now it is the duty of every individual to safeguard this priceless emotion so that it may constantly provoke them to piety and force them not to be contented with anything save the truth.
This indeed is a favour that Allaah-SWT explains matters in such details so that people may perceive the reality and thus turn back to Him-SWT . This graciousness and solemnity is being showered to highlight the dire consequences of man's indulgence in the pursuit of carnal desires. To give an idea of how much damage it can cause, the Holy Prophet-SW is being instructed to recount the tale of the man who had been blessed with Ayat here the term Ayat refers to a know ledge and perception of the Revelations.
Ayat Refers to State of Qalb
In my humble opinion it refers to that state or feeling which is experienced at the recitation of each individual Ayah. The accomplished Sufis are generally blessed with the feeling that with the recitation of each Ayah they receive a particular reflection of Divine Splendor, which leaves a certain impact on their hearts. This is why even the imposters tell their disciples to recite an Ayah and watch its impact on the heart. Whereas if one is fortunate enough to have an accomplished Shaikh, one does not need to create these feelings artificially for they are showered by Allaah-SWT . This is because meditations or the spiritual states of the Qalb are rewards, and rewards are always bestowed by Allaah-SWT
Misfortune of an Exalted Sufi
It is reported that he got involved in the carnal desires and stripped himself of the distinction and spiritual enrichment just as a snake sloughs off its skin, or an animal is skinned off. In other words, overwhelmed with avarice he lost his spiritual states and immediately slipped into the control of Satan who led him astray.
According to a saying of the Holy Prophet-SW was reported by Hadhrat 'Abdullah ibn Abbas-RAU this person was a spiritual leader of exalted status from Jabbarin tribe of the Bani Israil. He was also a Mustajab ud D'awat (person whose prayers are surely answered). When the Pharaoh was drowned and the Bani Israil turned to Syria, they were commanded to take over the cities occupied by the Jabbarin tribe. The tribesmen rushed to their spiritual leader to inform him that Prophet Musa-AS was a very stern ruler and was heading towards their territory with hundreds of thousands of fighters. The fate of the Pharaoh had frightened them, so they requested him to pray to Allah-SWT, being a person whose prayers are accepted, that no harm should come to them from Prophet Musa-AS. He said that Musa-AS was Allah-SWT's Prophet-AS, always escorted by angels-AS, so he dared not say anything against him and anyone who clashed with him would surely be destroyed. When they insisted, he said that he would seek permission from Allaah-SWT at night. The next day they approached him again. He told them that Allaah-SWT had commanded him to obey Prophet Musa-AS and not to oppose him. But his people kept on pressing him. When he finally refused they brought money and valuable gifts which he kept on the insistence of his wife. They visited him again on the following day. He was now under obligation, so Satan and his soul misled him further. He took his people on a hillock and raised his hands in prayer against the Prophet-AS. But praise be to Allah-SWT, whatever evil words he would use for Prophet Musa-AS would come out of his mouth against his own people. They protested that he was himself invoking destruction for them. He said that it was from Allaah-SWT and as such beyond his control. Meanwhile his tongue dangled out of his mouth and all the spiritual states he had were seized. And when these are seized, they take one's faith along.
Seizure of Spiritual States Results in Loss of Faith
It is a strange phenomenon that if the spiritual states of a seeker are seized, he generally loses his faith and turns an apostate. This is why Shaikh Allah Yar KhanRUA never seized anyone's states or stations except in the case of one of his students who had extraordinary Kashf and high spiritual stations. When this unfortunate seeker, misinterpreting his spiritual visions, began to act upon them and inspite of being repeatedly cautioned did not pay heed, the Shaikh seized his spiritual states so that he should not mislead others. After this, he denied the very existence of Allaah-SWT . May Allaah-SWT protect us! Many such cases have also been seen who were once men of feelings but the temporal greed’s misled them and they lost their sublime states along with their faith.
Now the spiritual leader of the tribe of Jabbarin after losing his sublime states, fell prey to Iblis and lost his track. He realized that he had lost everything so he told his people that he could only think of a trick which might help them. He advised them to send their beautiful young girls as vendors unto the People of Prophet Musa-AS, telling these girls not to discourage anyone's amorous advances. If his people fell prey to adultery, they, too will lose Divine Help. They tried this and a chieftain of Bani Sham'on, Ibn-e-Shalum, fell for one of the women and committed adultery. It resulted in the outbreak of plague in the ranks of Prophet Musa-AS's Army, killing thousands of men. At last, they executed both the chieftain and his mate, hung them outside their abode begging for Allah-SWT's Forgiveness and they were duly forgiven. The name of this spiritual leader of the Jabbarin has been recorded as Bal'am bin Ba'or.
These spiritual states were such a blessing that Allaah-SWT might have graced him with much higher spiritual stations but because of his greed and lowliness he clung to the soil. Whether it be jewels or gold, money or power, it is nothing but dust; for it is worldly and shall one day be reduced to dust. So this man, too, clung to this dust and became a slave of his fancies. He fell low like a dog who pants with its tongue lolled out whether carrying a load or not. All those who falsify the Divine Revelations get to this state. Same is the case of these Jews and Christians who had been waiting for the Final Prophet-SW They would recount his-SW signs and in any encounter with the infidels would seek Divine Succour through his-SW intercession. But once he-SW was raised, they fell victim to mundane power and greed. Not only did they fail to accept the faith but remained in the frontline of opposition.
Allah-SWT , therefore, tells the Holy Prophet-SW to recount this event to Jews and the Christians. They must not be proud of their knowledge and piety; for it does not take long to be ruined like BaPam bin Ba'or. Therefore, if one is blessed with spiritual states and good deeds, with a passion for worship, he must thank Allaah-SWT and pray for holding fast to Sunnah of the Holy Prophet-SW. This parable is a great lesson to learn from. Besides, all those who oppose the Divine Commandment indeed become destitute and wrong their own selves.
Guidance and the Misguided
Only those whom Allaah-SWT guides find the guidance and those whom Allaah-SWT sends astray are indeed at a great loss. Here it should not be mistaken that Allaah-SWT coerces seem to be misguided. It has been revealed that Allaah-SWT created human beings and Jinn to worship Him-SWT i.e. to attain His-SWT Cognition. Unfortunately some people opt for the path of disobedience either by personal choice or by following their ancestors or because of bad company. As a punishment, their capacity to receive and accept guidance is seized. Yet there are others who are fortunate enough to seek good company and act piously. To them Allaah-SWT guides further and opens out avenues of spiritual elevation. This is what the Ayah stands for, that no one can help a person who himself spoils his terms with Allah-SWT, and no one can harm the one who has earned Divine Support and Pleasure. All this, however, depends on human conduct. Nothing happens out of the blue without being in Allah-SWT's Knowledge. He-SWT did not create mankind in vain. The Shi'ites, on the contrary, believe in Bida' for Allaah-SWT .
Negation of the Belief in Bida'
It means that Allaah-SWT is not Aware of the consequences of events until they actually occur. The Shi'ites concocted this in negation of the Ayat revealed in honour of the Four Noble Caliphs. They wanted to prove that at the time of revelations these exalted Companions-RAU were good but later on they changed. Allaah-SWT asserts that it is in His-SWT Knowledge as to how many Jinn and human being will eventually go to Hell. And so sure is His-SWT Knowledge as if they were actually created for Hell. Scholars have dilated here on the issue of destiny but it is not a topic of discussion for the layman. It is sufficient to understand that Allaah-SWT is the Sovereign Ruler, the Only Creator and the Only Owner and is thus free to decide the placement of His-SWT creation. No one has the right to question His-SWT decisions. Nevertheless, it is very clear that the absurdness of Bida' cannot be attributed to Allah-SWT, nor does He-SWT forget anything. His-SWT Knowledge is Absolute and Eternal and He-SWT is constantly Vigilant over even thing and every one. The past or the future is present before Him-SWT . He-SWT knew even before the birth of mankind as to who would come out triumphant from the practical field of life and who would qualify for Hell. But inspite of knowing He-SWT did allow them-to be born and blessed with all sorts of faculties.
Firstly, all the creations possess life and its awareness. They also have the capacity to contemplate their survival as well as improvement. The clay, stones or the inert substances have animation which cannot be observed with physical eyes. Secondly, the plants which grow and flourish not only accept the climatic effects but it has been experimented that they yield better results when given the human love and attention. Thirdly, are the animals who have more understanding than the preceding two groups. Therefore, they manage to have their food and shelter, to procreate and to protect themselves from their enemy. And above all is human being who not only can maintain his physical existence but can also protect it. He enjoys various bodily delights and a colourful social life. He builds beautiful cities and means of communication and spends billions on beautification. He also has the sense to appreciate the Magnificence of his Creator and thus alongwith his physical development he also caters for the nourishment of his Spirit. This is because he has been blessed with a Qalb equipped with the highest standards of perception enabling him to perceive the Greatness of Allaah-SWT . Commensurate to his capacity he can attain His-SWT Cognition and submit to His-SWT Will and Purpose.
The inert substances, the plants and the animals are merely there to serve mankind in this world and will not exist in the Hereafter. Whereas human being is a temporary dweller of this world who will live forever in the Hereafter. Therefore, his needs are not confined to the nourishment of his body but extend to his welfare in the Hereafter. The satiation of the eternal needs is hinged on the Qalb. It is the subtle organ which is blessed with Divine Address and a taste for eternal bliss. Allaah-SWT asserts that He-SWT blessed every human being with a Qalb but the ill fated who are Hell bound have indeed failed to utilize this faculty for discriminating between right and wrong and understanding the reality. When Qalb is indifferent and insensitive, neither the eyes see nor the ears can listen to the truth, which could facilitate Allah-SWT's Cognition. Thus the life of a person gets restricted to that of an animal, concerned only with the fulfillment of physical demands. He can not see beyond his food, his abode and his children. And qualifies to be in Hell forever. It is a matter of common observation that the people whose Qulub are deprived of the light of faith and understanding direct their entire effort towards the attainment of worldly pleasures. Even if they excel in the fields of astronomy or nuclear technology while being heedless of Allaah-SWT and the Hereafter, they have not utilized their senses as they should have as human beings. Using these faculties merely as animals tantamount to not having used them at all. Therefore, such people are worst than animals because animals are neither obliged to work for the Hereafter nor for the attainment of Allah-SWT's Cognition. The animals have not been blessed with a Qalb whereas man has everything, but out of sheer negligence heads for destruction. Thus there is only one way of avoiding this ill fate and that is to invoke Allaah-SWT by His-SWT Most Beautiful Names.
The Need for Allah-SWT's Zikr
Here invoking stands for His-SWT Zikr and for hymning His Praises. Both are the main sources of enlightenment and purification of the heart, and enable it to discern the truth. Secondly, invocation is done for the fulfillment of some need or for worship. The Beautiful Names of Allaah-SWT are those which have been endorsed by the Quran and the Sunnah. No other name should be attributed to Him-SWT even if it has a similar meaning. Moreover, the methods of worship have also been spelled out by Quran and the Sunnah leaving no room for any rituals. Hence the first thing enjoined is to invoke Allah-SWT's Names and do Zikr. However, doing Zikr of His-SWT Personal Name 'Allah-SWT " has been strongly recommended as revealed in the beginning of Surah Muzammil. Besides, call out to Allaah-SWT for the fulfillment of every need, that is, do employ worldly means, but firmly believing the fact that the end results will he according to the will of the Most Merciful. Those who display an attitude of denial and crookedness towards Allah-SWT's Zikr and invocations are not only unfortunate but also are unworthy of attention. For example, if they make fun of those who do Allah-SWT's Zikr or threaten them or if the seeker himself begins to feel that he should quit doing Zikr as the majority is not doing so, is not only absurd but also harmful. The right course of action is not to give them any importance; they shall soon bear the brunt of their actions.
The Invitation to Truth
However, not everyone has deviated from the right path, for there is a group which invites the people to truth. Not only do they practice and are steadfast themselves but also invite others to Din and settle all their affairs in the light of the truth. This is a distinction conferred upon the most fortunate group and is a distinguishing feature of the Ummah of Prophet Muhammad-SW. But it involves two aspects which call for special care. Firstly, the beliefs of the inviter himself must be free from any adulteration of rituals and innovations. Secondly, he should invite others to the right path and make sure that his own words and deeds are in harmony. His personal conduct should not undermine his preaching mission, like in case of those who do not leave any provisions for their families behind nor consult them. Similarly, those who invite others to Zikr but are themselves not regular; cannot achieve the expected results. Besides, the harmony and coherence of a society hinges on two factors: that all affairs of peace and war, enmity and friendship, trading and commerce are settled with justice and fairness, and this message is conveyed to the rest of the mankind. A living example in this regard are the Companions-RAU, who conducted all business of life in the light of the truth. Then Allaah-SWT blessed them with the ability to convey this truth to the rest of the mankind.
Today the biggest problem we face is that from the politicians to the religious scholars and the spiritual mentors, and from the rulers to the ordinary farmers and traders, all are in the clutches of greed and personal interests. This is why disharmony and discord prevails everywhere. May Allaah-SWT grant us once again the capacity to practice the truth for salvation in both the worlds!