Now that the Bani Israil were safe and they had realized that idol worship was not the right thing to do, the determination of a Code of Worship and Divine Law became imperative in order to guarantee salvation in both the worlds. So Allaah-SWT summoned Prophet Musa-AS to Mount Tur for a thirty nights solitude in worship and prayer. This duration was subsequently extended by ten nights making it a total of forty. In other words, the required level of attention towards Allaah-SWT was achieved in forty nights instead of thirty. A certain spiritual state was the goal, which Allaah-SWT could have blessed otherwise without demanding an effort. But since this is a world of causes and effects, therefore, the Prophet-AS was Commanded to use the means and methods.
Effects of Solitude
Prophet Musa-AS fasted for thirty days and nights continuously. He remained in isolation to meditate because it plays a special role in attaining concentration. When the sensory organs have nothing to see or hear they do not send any information to the Qalb whereby it is invigorated. That is why the seekers turn off the lights while engaging in Allah-SWT's Zikr in an attempt to achieve concentration. The extension often days in Prophet Musa-AS ‘s stay at Tur in fact is a lesson that things may not always turn out as expected and extension may have to be given. This implies that a Shaikh must not put the seekers through the meditations until a certain condition is experienced. The prescribed duration of thirty nights also highlights the importance of lunar calendar in matters of religion, though it is permissible and correct to use the solar calendar in worldly matters.
The Basis of Chillah (Forty Days)
The basis of Chillah is provided by this forty nights sojourn of Prophet Musa-AS on Mount Tur. Moreover, its role and importance in attaining inner purification is highlighted by a saying of the Holy Prophet-SW: "Whoever will worship Allaah-SWT with devotion for forty days, springs of wisdom will How from his Qalb". It also drives home a lesson of patience, perseverance and steadiness in all matters of life.
Nominating a Deputy
Prophet Musa-AS appointed Prophet Harun-AS before leaving for Tur as his representative and deputy. He told him to take care of all the matters in his absence. This lays down for us a principle that arrangements must be made, before leaving on any expedition, for the welfare of those being left behind irrespective of how important the task may be. This rejects the view point of those who mistake mismanagement for the sign of saintliness.
Therefore, a ruler whether of a State or a household, must appoint his deputy to take charge in his absence. Those who go out on a Chillah for propagation of Islam without leaving any provisions for their dependants, have here a point to ponder over. A Prophet-AS of Allaah-SWT leaving to fetch a Divine Code of Life makes arrangements for those being left behind; how can anyone else be justified in going away without any consideration for the dependants?
Although Harun-AS was himself a Prophet-AS but he was given specific instructions by Prophet Musa-AS to keep a vigilant eye on the conduct of the people after he had gone, and to exert all his efforts for their reformation. And if anyone still opted for the wrong path, that person should not expect or get any cooperation from him. This establishes the fact that an outgoing person must leave a complete and specific set of instructions to his nominee about all matters. The same is also proven by the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet-SW, for he-SW too appointed his-SW deputies to officiate in his absence.
While Prophet Musa-AS was on Mount Tur engaged in Allah-SWT's worship, in seclusion, he had the honour to speak to Him-SWT . This set ablaze in him a desire to behold Him-SWT . So he requested "O’ my Rabb-SWT ! Show Yourself-SWT to me so that I may see You-SWT *'. Allaah-SWT answered: "It is no impossible but not in the present situation, that is, in the temporal life." A beholding is not denied here but the dialogue implies that the observation of Divine Splendor cannot be endured in this physical existence. It must be noted that in this temporal life the body is entrusted with all responsibility while the Ruh is its subordinate. In the next phase of Barzakh, the Ruh will assume the leading role, while the physical body will become subordinate. And in the Hereafter both will share responsibility equally. Thus where the physical comforts will be experienced, the spiritual refulgence and a dialogue with the angels-AS will also be enjoyed. And since the spiritual as well as physical powers will be tremendously increased the believers will be blessed with the honour of beholding the Divinity. Only those engulfed in the darkness of their misdeeds will remain deprived. Since that kind of power is normally not possessed in this temporal existence, therefore, inspite of being logically possible, observing Allaah-SWT is not endorsed by Shariah. However, it is not right to discuss the exceptional personage of the Holy Prophet-SW in this context because he-SW was blessed with extraordinary powers. If he-SW could go beyond the Sidrah-al-Muntaha, it is enough to establish that he-SW enjoyed spiritual as well as physical powers par excellence. Here Prophet Musa-AS the subject of discussion.
In response to Prophet Musa-AS’s request, he was told that it was not possible to withstand His-SWT Refulgence in this physical existence. However, as an experiment, he may keep an eye on Mount Tur. If it stayed intact, he too would be able to behold the Splendor. Thus Allaah-SWT manifested His-SWT Refulgence; the Mount was reduced to dust and Prophet Musa-AS fell unconscious. With Sufis, refulgence refers to indirect vision such as seeing through a mirror. Therefore, it cannot be termed as Ru'ait (direct observation) even though the lexicon meaning of refulgence is to manifest.
The States of Kashf
Visualized spiritually, it appears as if the Divine Refulgence was manifested on a peak separated by valley from the one on which Prophet Musa-AS was standing. But inspite of this distance, he could not bear the Refulgence and lost his senses. When he-AS recovered he turned to Allaah-SWT in penitence, admitting that His-SWT Refulgence was too exalted to be captured by the physical eye. He begged forgiveness for his-AS anxious and improper request and at the same time proclaimed his complete submission to His-SWT Will and Purpose.
Divine Bestowal is Indeed the Best
Allah-SWT told Prophet Musa-AS that he had not only been appointed as a Messenger-AS but also enjoyed the honour of conversing with Him-SWT . Therefore, he should hold firmly on to what had been given to him. the Divine Commandments. He was told to adhere to them and show his gratitude to Allaah-SWT . This is indeed a lesson for the seekers of the Sufi Path. They should endeavor to their best and leave the rest entirely upto Allah-SWT, without worrying for the spiritual stations, and be grateful on whatever they are blessed with.
So Allaah-SWT blessed Prophet Musa-AS with Tablets inscribed with Divine Commandments, dealing with all aspects of human needs. He was told not only to obey the Commandments himself but also to ensure adherence by his people in the best possible manner. This will ensure their victory over the defiant folk whose townships would be at their feet.
Reason for Misguidance
Those who indulge in sheer arrogance and self conceit shall not be blessed with the capacity to accept the Divine Commandments. Rather their sins will lead to crookedness within their hearts whereby they will fail to become believers even after observing various miracles. They will fail to tread on the path of piety after it has been manifested to them and instead dash towards evil, with all their energy.
This is the fate suffered by those who deny the Signs of Allaah-SWT and become heedless of His-SWT Zikr. And this neglect culminates into the repudiation of the Hereafter, which alone is enough to mollify any good deed ever done.
Sin and Negligence drive to Disbelief
Disobedience and sin are the sources of neglect towards Allah-SWT's Zikr. If this negligence persists and no remedial measures are taken, a person does not only remain heedless to Zikr but also denies Resurrection in the Hereafter. This, in turn, makes him a disbeliever, which ruins all his good deeds that were to earn him the requital.