سورة المائدة   

Surah Name: Al-Ma'idah Meaning:The Table Spread

  • Revealed at Madinah
  • Completion and Perfection of Islam as Deen (way of life) declared in this Surah.

    With reference to its revelation, it is amongst those Surahs, which were revealed at the end. Part of it was also revealed on the eve of the last Hajj of the Holy Prophet-SW, after which he-SW lived for only about eighty days. Certain Sections were revealed at the time of the Conquest of Makkah, while some on journey to Hudaibiyah. Whereas Surah An-Nisa' discusses mutual relations, dealings and the rights and duties, this Surah lays further emphasis on practising them. The believers are being specifically instructed: "Fulfill your undertakings."

  • Total Number of Rukū / Sections 16
  • Total Number of Āyāt / Parts 120
  • Sūrah / Chapter number 5
  • Rukū / Section 8 contains Āyāt / Parts 6
  • Siparah/ Volume 6 & 7


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tattakhithoo alyahooda wa(al)nnasara awliyaa baAAduhum awliyao baAAdin waman yatawallahum minkum fainnahu minhum inna Allaha la yahdee alqawma a(l)ththalimeen(a)

O’ you who believe! Do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends; friends they are to each other; and if any of you befriends them, verily then he is one of them. Surely Allah-SWT does not guide a transgressing people.


فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَةٌ فَعَسَى اللّهُ أَن يَأْتِيَ بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِّنْ عِندِهِ فَيُصْبِحُواْ عَلَى مَا أَسَرُّواْ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ

Fatara allatheena fee quloobihim maradun yusariAAoona feehim yaqooloona nakhsha an tuseebana dairatun faAAasa Allahu an yatiya bi(a)lfathi aw amrin min AAindihi fayusbihoo AAala ma asarroo fee anfusihim nadimeen(a)

So you see those in whose hearts is a disease hasten toward them saying: we fear lest some misfortune may befall us. But soon Allah-SWT may bring a victory or some other commandment from Himself-SWT ; then they shall find themselves regretful for what they have been keeping secret in their minds.


وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَهَـؤُلاء الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُواْ بِاللّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ إِنَّهُمْ لَمَعَكُمْ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُواْ خَاسِرِينَ

Wayaqoolu allatheena amanoo ahaolai allatheena aqsamoo bi(A)llahi jahda aymanihim innahum lamaAAakum habitat aAAmaluhum faasbahoo khasireen(a)

And those who believe will say: are they the same who affirmed by solemn oath of Allaah-SWT that they were with you? Their works came to naught and they found themselves losers.


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَن يَرْتَدَّ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَلاَ يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لآئِمٍ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo man yartadda minkum AAan deenihi fasawfa yatee Allahu biqawmin yuhibbuhum wayuhibboonahu athillatin AAala almumineena aAAizzatin AAala alkafireena yujahidoona fee sabeeli Allahi wala yakhafoona lawmata laimin thalika fadlu Allahi yuteehi man yashao wa(A)llahu wasiAAun AAaleem(un)

O’ you who believe! Whoever of you apostates from his religion, then Allah-SWT shall soon bring a people whom He-SWT shall love and who shall love Him-SWT , gentle towards the believers, stern towards the infidels, striving hard in the way of Allah-SWT , and unheeding the reproof of any reprover. This is the Grace of Allah-SWT : He-SWT bestows it on whoever He-SWT will. And Allah-SWT is Bountiful. Knowing.


إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ

Innama waliyyukumu Allahu warasooluhu wa(a)llatheena amanoo allatheena yuqeemoona a(l)ssalata wayutoona a(l)zzakata wahum rakiAAoon(a)

Your friend is but Allah-SWT and His-SWT Messenger-SW and those who have believed, those who establish the Salat and pay the Zakat, while they bow down.


وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ

Waman yatawalla Allaha warasoolahu wa(a)llatheena amanoo fainna hizba Allahi humu alghaliboon(a)

And whoever befriends Allah-SWT and His-SWT Messenger-SW and those who have believed, then the party of Allah-SWT ! It is they who will be triumphant.


In The Name of Allah-SWT the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

Men with firm faith are worthy of friendship as against the Jews and the Christians. The latter nations must be provided justice, given protection and their due rights as human beings, and should be helped when in need, but out of sympathy. Developing relations with them to the extent that Islam and its distinctive features are jeopardized is altogether forbidden. If today a group photograph of Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Jews and atheists is taken, it becomes difficult to distinguish them from their disposition. Rather, it is difficult to distinguish a man from a woman unless the captions below a photograph are read. This is the outcome of friendship with the non-believers. When the foundations of the Islamic State were being laid at Madinah, the Holy Prophet-SW signed a Treaty with the Jews that they will not fight with the Muslims and if an enemy attacked, both the Jews and the Muslims will defend the city jointly. Taking advantage of this Treaty some Jews developed personal friendship with Muslims for the purpose of spying. They not only breached the Treaty but also instigated the Makkans to attack Madinah giving them all possible help. So Allah-SWT banned personal friendship with Jews and Christians and warned the believers that these two nations can never be their well-wishers. In spite of their inner rift they are united against Islam, and can never be sincere to the Muslims. So when relations cannot be maintained at national level, personal friendship will be of no avail. They will always harm the believers. If anyone amongst the believers feels that he cannot do without befriending the Jews and the Christians, he is surely not sincere to Islam and is putting up a false pretence of being a Muslim. The kind of friendship based on affection is impossible between a Muslim and these two groups: and a true believer can never dream of it as it would be transgression and Allah-SWT does not permit transgressors to tread on the right path.


Those Muslims, who despite the ban, are promoting relations with the Jews and the Christians are sick at heart, and are suffering from hypocrisy. In their opinion, circumstances vary and some day they might need help from these Christians and Jews. 'Abdullah bin Ubbay bin Salool once commented: How long will the Muslims endure: sooner or later they will be wiped out and ultimately we shall have to live together with the Jews and the Christian; so why should we boycott them? This was and will be the state of hypocrites through times to come. They are a people with weak faith and diseased hearts. They copy the Jews and the Christians in their outlook: their eating habits, dress, dealings, mannerism, even their gait.


Let it be known to them that Islam shall soon In-sha-Allah prevail. The conquest of Makkah was predicted when the entire Arabia used to shudder looking at the might of the Makkans. The hypocrites, as well as the Jews and the Christians, thought that victory at Badr was purely accidental. They thought that the Makkans had shown slackness by going back after the war. They expected that any future encounter would vanquish the Muslims and Islam shall be wiped out forever. Notwithstanding the prevailing circumstances, Allah-SWT declared that Makkah shall fall to the Muslims and the glory of the Makkans and all hopes of the hypocrites shall be reduced to dust. He-SWT said that the duplicity of the hypocrites may be exposed even before that. The conquest of Makkah was in any case to come about and would lay bare the frailty of many champions of power. At that time, the hypocrites will be mortified to think why they chose the path of ignominy by opposing the Muslims. It will be an eye opener to the Muslims too as they will know that the very people who had endlessly pledged their allegiance to the Muslims were liars. Their entire worship would go waste and their claims of faith would prove false. Worship stands on the foundations of faith and trust, without which its whole structure will collapse. All their actions, which they did alongside the Muslims would end in smoke. What an awful loss!


Relations with the non-Believers

In fact this ban on friendship with the non-believers is not for the preservation of Islam but for the preservation of Muslims; as Allah-SWT has Himself-SWT guaranteed the former. He-SWT is all Powerful. He-SWT Who-SWT raised Islam in a short span of time from the deserts of Arabia and swept it over three quarters of the known world. He-SWT blessed the Muslims with such undaunted courage and power, which was totally unimaginable for the non-believers and the hypocrites. They never expected that the creed they were bent upon to wipe out would resound in the world till the end of time! And Allah-SWT is completely capable of preserving it forever, even if some or all the believers. Allah-SWT forbid, turn apostates. He-SWT will raise a nation who will love Him-SWT , and whom He-SWT shall love. They will be the people extremely kind and polite to their fellow believers, yet stern on the non-believers. They will strike them like a thunderbolt, when they tight in Allah-SWT ‘s are Cause, and would prove equal to the task of Jihad. They will set the standards of fighting. Their worships and their fear of Allah-SWT will also be exemplary. Neither the sword nor any ones censure will ever deter them from the right path.


It becomes absolutely clear that our adherence to Islam is not essential for the survival of Islam, but for our own selves. Allah-SWT is the Protector of Islam and chooses whoever He-SWT will for the service of Islam. But it is impossible to accomplish this task without devotion and love. Love is the power unmindful of swords and slander. How can it be possible for a humble creation to love Allah-SWT ? A human being is after all humble, dependants and helpless, while Allah-SWT is the Creator: invisible, inconceivable. Neither can He-SWT be touched nor seen nor conversed with. He-SWT is One of His-SWT Kind, there is no one like Him-SWT : He-SWT has no gender, no caste: how can He-SWT be loved? The answer to this question is given in Yuhibb unahu, which means that when Allah-SWT starts loving His-SWT servants, they in return automatically develop a love for Him-SWT . This appears to be an easy task that without having done anything the aim is achieved; but in fact it is very difficult. How can the attention and love of Allah-SWT , un-imaginable and free of all bounds or form be captured? The Holy Prophet-SW solved the problem and it is indeed admirable how he-SW made such a formidable task of attracting Allah-SWT's love so simple. He-SW said: "Follow me and Allah-SWT will love you. And when Allah-SWT loves someone, he in return loves Him-SWT and this passion motivates him to great adventures and achievements.


Excellence of Siddiq-e-Akbar

The scholars are unanimous that these Ayat befit the most exalted Companion-RAU Abu Bakr Siddiq and his colleagues. He provided the leadership and the guidance and they excelled in the service of Islam, which faced the worst situation when the Holy Prophet-SW passed away. The mischief had started just before this fateful event. Musailimah Kazzab declared his Prophethood, which encouraged the hypocrites and the non-believers, and Aswad 'Ansi, as well as Taleyah, the Chief of Banu Asad followed suit. A woman also claimed apostleship while seven major tribes refused to pay Zakat. The forces of the Romans as well as Choseroes of Iran were yearning to invade the Islamic State. In short, there was a storm of darkness and destruction all around. Musailimah Kazzab alone had forty thousand warriors. On one hand was the tragedy of departure of the Holy Prophet-SW , an unbearable loss by itself, and on the other a gale of rebellion. The person with the strongest heart in a fragile body, the most distinguished Muslim, a soldier and a Mujahid, an exemplary Sufi, second to none after the Holy Prophet-SW , his-SW successor and the leader of the believers, Abu Bakr Siddiq-RAU declared Jihad with full vigour against all the false Prophets as well as those who refused to pay Zakat. The Companions-RAU were alarmed and submitted: "O’ leader of the believers! We are small in number as compared to the enemies after the dispatch of contingent to Tabuk against Caesar. It is not advisable to open up so many fronts simultaneously. First of all, the pretenders of Prophethood must be dealt with". The Caliph-RAU said: "I swear by Allah-SWT that not a dot can be added or omitted from the Din handed down by the Holy Prophet-SW in my lifetime. You talk about Zakat, if anyone refuses to remit a cord or a rope which he had been giving in his time, I will declare Jihad against such a defaulter." Victory is up to Allah-SWT but it is the duty of a Muslim to offer his life in His-SWT Cause with sincerity.


Three important facts have been alluded to. Firstly, love is the vehicle of Divine Path, a love that culminates into passion. If there is no love with Allah-SWT , His-SWT Prophet-SW and His-SWT Din, nothing can be achieved. Secondly, this path demands a constant struggle; there is no resting area on this Path. It is an endless Jihad, with the enemy on the battlefield, or with the forces of evil and virtue within oneself, whereby one has to constantly make himself obey Allah-SWT , do His-SWT Zikr and obey the Holy Prophet-SW. And the last hurdle is the sarcasm and censure of the near and dear ones, which a seeker has to put up with. A hindrance by the sword is often easy to deal with, may be out of sheer motivation, but the one caused by the sneering of relatives and friends often flattens even the die hards. They ridicule endlessly and vex so much that sometime a person is forced to give in. However, those who love Allah-SWT remain unmolested. This courage is a blessing from Allah-SWT . He-SWT grants it to whoever He-SWT pleases, for He-SWT is all Embracing and all Knowing and He-SWT exactly knows what is required and where.


 O' Muslims! Allah-SWT , and His-SWT Holy Prophet-SW and the believers are your friends. It means that only a Muslim is the friend of a Muslim. However, do listen that only that Muslim is worthy of friendship who is also a well-wisher of his own self. The believers, who offer Salat, pay Zakat. Practice the basic tenets of Islam and are extremely humble before Allah-SWT , and are kind and gentle towards the Muslims, are worthy of friendship. Remember that whoever befriends Allah-SWT , and proves his friendship with the Holy Prophet-SW or the group, or the person steadfast on their faith, who carry out their duties with sincerity and devotion, are certainly Allah-SWT's party. Whenever people of such qualities will emerge they will always be victorious and shall prevail. The history of Islam bears witness that whenever such practicing Muslims came to the forefront, Allah-SWT helped them. And whenever the Muslims faced humiliation and defeat, the main factor was their own waywardness.