سورة المائدة   

Surah Name: Al-Ma'idah Meaning:The Table Spread

  • Revealed at Madinah
  • Completion and Perfection of Islam as Deen (way of life) declared in this Surah.

    With reference to its revelation, it is amongst those Surahs, which were revealed at the end. Part of it was also revealed on the eve of the last Hajj of the Holy Prophet-SW, after which he-SW lived for only about eighty days. Certain Sections were revealed at the time of the Conquest of Makkah, while some on journey to Hudaibiyah. Whereas Surah An-Nisa' discusses mutual relations, dealings and the rights and duties, this Surah lays further emphasis on practising them. The believers are being specifically instructed: "Fulfill your undertakings."

  • Total Number of Rukū / Sections 16
  • Total Number of Āyāt / Parts 120
  • Sūrah / Chapter number 5
  • Rukū / Section 7 contains Āyāt / Parts 7
  • Siparah/ Volume 6 & 7


إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُواْ مِن كِتَابِ اللّهِ وَكَانُواْ عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاء فَلاَ تَخْشَوُاْ النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلاَ تَشْتَرُواْ بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ 

Inna anzalna a(l)ttawrata feeha hudan wanoorun yahkumu biha a(l)nnabiyyoona allatheena aslamoo lillatheena hadoo wa(al)rrabbaniyyoona wa(a)lahbaru bimaistuhfithoo min kitabi Allahi wakanoo AAalayhi shuhadaa fala takhshawoo a(l)nnasa wa(i)khshawni wala tashtaroo biayatee thamanan qaleelan waman lam yahkum bimaanzala Allahu faolaika humu alkafiroon(a)

It is We-SWT Who-SWT have sent down the Torah in which was guidance and a light. By it the Prophets-AS who submitted themselves judged those who were Judaised, and so did the priests and the rabbis: they judged by what was committed to their keeping of the Book of Allah-SWT , and to which they were witnesses. So fear not mankind, but fear Me-SWT , and sell not My-SWT revelations for a paltry price and he who does not judge by what Allah-SWT has sent down, it is they who are the infidels.


وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالأَنفَ بِالأَنفِ وَالأُذُنَ بِالأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَّهُ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

Wakatabna AAalayhim feeha anna a(l)nnafsa bi(al)nnafsi wa(a)lAAayna bi(a)lAAayni wa(a)lanfa bi(a)lanfi wa(a)lothuna bi(a)lothuni wa(al)ssinna bi(al)ssinni wa(a)ljurooha qisasun faman tasaddaqa bihi fahuwa kaffaratun lahu waman lam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faolaika humu a(l)ththalimoon(a)

And We-SWT enjoined for them in it: life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and injuries in reprisal. And whoever forgoes it: this shall be for him an expiation. And he who does not judge according to what Allah-SWT has sent down, it is they who are the wrongdoers.


وَقَفَّيْنَا عَلَى آثَارِهِم بِعَيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الإِنجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

Waqaffayna AAala atharihim biAAeesa ibni maryama musaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi mina a(l)ttawrati waataynahu alinjeela feehi hudan wanoorun wamusaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi mina a(l)ttawrati wahudan wamawAAithatan lilmuttaqeen(a)

And in their footsteps We-SWT caused Isa-AS, son of Maryam-AS to follow; confirming what went afore him, the Torah, and We-SWT gave him Bible, in which was guidance and light, confirming what preceded it, the Torah, and a guidance and an admonition to the Rabb-SWT -fearing.


وَلْيَحْكُمْ أَهْلُ الإِنجِيلِ بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فِيهِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Walyahkum ahlu alinjeeli bima anzala Allahu feehi waman lam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faolaika humu alfasiqoon(a)

And let the people of the Bible judge by what Allah-SWT has sent down in it, and he who does not judge according to what Allah-SWT has sent down, it is they who are the Fasiqin.


وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَـكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَآ آتَاكُم فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ إِلَى الله مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ

Waanzalna ilayka alkitaba bi(a)lhaqqi musaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi mina alkitabi wamuhayminan AAalayhi fa(o)hkum baynahum bima anzala Allahu wala tattabiAA ahwaahum AAamma jaaka mina alhaqqi likullin jaAAalna minkum shirAAatan waminhajan walaw shaa Allahu lajaAAalakum ommatan wahidatan walakin liyabluwakum fee ma atakum fa(i)stabiqoo alkhayrati ila Allahi marjiAAukum jameeAAan fayunabbiokum bima kuntum feehi takhtalifoon(a)

And We-SWT have sent down the Book to you-SW with truth and confirming what has preceded it of the Book, and as a guardian over it. So you-SW judge between them according to what Allah-SWT has sent down, and do not follow their desires away from what has come to you-SW of the truth. To every one of you We-SWT have ordained a law and a way; and had Allah-SWT so willed. He-SWT would have made you all a single community, but He-SWT willed it not, in order that He-SWT may try you by what He-SWT has given you. Hasten therefore to virtues; to Allah-SWT is the return of you all; then He-SWT shall declare to you regarding what you have been disputing.


وَأَنِ احْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ إِلَيْكَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ

Waani ohkum baynahum bima anzala Allahu wala tattabiAA ahwaahum wa(i)htharhum an yaftinooka AAan baAAdi ma anzala Allahu ilayka fain tawallaw fa(i)AAlam annama yureedu Allahu an yuseebahum bibaAAdthunoobihim wainna katheeran mina a(l)nnasi lafasiqoon(a)

And you-SW judge between them according to what Allah-SWT has sent down, and do not follow their desires, and be on your-SW guard lest they tempt you away from any part of what Allah-SWT has sent down to you. Then if they turn away, know you that Allah-SWT wishes to afflict them for some of their sins. And verily many of the mankind are transgressors.


أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ

Afahukma aljahiliyyati yabghoona waman ahsanu mina Allahu hukman liqawmin yooqinoon(a)

Do they then seek the judgement of ignorance? And who is better in judgement than Allah-SWT for a people who have firm faith?


In The Name of Allah-SWT the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

We-SWT blessed the Jews with Torah. It, too, was a Divine Revelation containing both guidance and light. Guidance means leading the life in accordance with Allah's Pleasure as enjoined by Him-SWT . Although light also refers to the same, yet, in actuality, it denotes the feelings and blessings associated with each and every word of the Book. Just as we depend on a teacher to explain the meanings of the Book, similarly we have to acquire the light, for without it, sincerity of the hearts and Allah-SWT's nearness are not possible. He, who has been blessed with these feelings acts in a much better way than he who is not so fortunate. A similar message is conveyed by Hadith, that if a Companion-RAU gives away a handful of barley in charity, a successor cannot equal him in reward even if he gives away gold equal to Mount Uhad.


Companion-RAU is a term used only for a person who directly received beneficence from the company of the Holy Prophet-SW , and because of that his faith became very strong. He attained a unique level of humility and became an exemplary Muslim in terms of honesty, trustworthiness and high moral values. Besides, this excellence can only be acquired through love. Just as the teachings of the Holy Prophet--SW were spread word for word so were the Barakah and the lights, or the spiritual states transmitted from his sacred heart to the Companions-RAU hearts. Then those who availed their company with sincerity and with the objective of acquiring these blessings were successful in their pursuit. This was the way this ethereal bounty was preserved and transferred from breast to breast over the centuries. For salvation one has to believe in the teachings with conviction and abide by them, but for acquiring the stations of nearness, the lights and spiritual states are a pre-requisite. They are characteristic of every Divine Revelation. The Messengers-AS of Allah-SWT sent from time to time always sought guidance from the Divine Books and made decisions in the light of that guidance. In spite of their exalted offices, they were His-SWT obedient personages. The Jews were not only blessed with series of Prophets-AS but also with their successors rabbis and Ahbar (priests). Rabbis acquired knowledge as well as enlightenment of the heart, while Ahbar means those who acquired knowledge and practiced and propagated it to the best of their ability. An important point to take note of is that every Sufi is a scholar, because without knowledge he cannot move on. Even if he is not a scholar of distinction he must at least be acquainted with all the important aspects of Din. As a general rule, those who acquire a notable rank or become the guides are scholars too. And if, perchance, they had not apparently received formal education, once ushered into the higher stages of Suluk, they are bestowed with knowledge from His-SWT Presence and their hearts are opened for knowledge by Allah-SWT . In short, every Sufi is a scholar but every scholar is not a Sufi as evident from the separate mention of Ahbar.


If a person does not dedicate his knowledge purely to Allah-SWT and does not act in accordance with it, he cannot be taken as a scholar. It is the duty of every Sufi and scholar to protect the Divine Book, convey its Commands to others and to strive for its practice. Any scholar who uses his knowledge for mundane benefits or seeks the pleasure of people by altering its Commands, is not a scholar but a transgressor. Such people should fear Allah-SWT rather than the people and should not sell the Commandments of Allah-SWT for petty financial gains as no amount of wealth can be of any consequence against them. Any one who makes decisions against Divine Commands, whether head of a State, a group of people, of his own family or only of his own self, is undoubtedly an infidel. However, if he acknowledges the Divine Commandment to be correct and his own decision as wrong, and yet acts according to his own opinion, he is a sinner. Now take the case of these Jews, who demand a verdict from the Holy Prophet-SW while a clear verdict is extant in their own Book, that is, a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and an injury for a similar injury. Yet if someone forgives, it is a matter of Qisas, wherein the rights of humans prevail and can be forgiven. The one who forgives, his action will become a source of forgiveness of his own sins. It must be remembered that whoever takes a decision against the Commands of Allah-SWT is a malefactor and a transgressor. The Quran has upheld this verdict too. The scholars agree that if the Commandments revealed in preceding Divine Books are not changed by the Quran, they would not be superseded and shall remain applicable. To act upon them would be deemed as practicing the Quran as Quran itself has retained them.


Prophet Isa-AS was raised; his birth was a miracle and his dialogue in the cradle inviting people to Allah-SWT was also a miracle. He was given a Book, which endorsed the preceding Torah, verified it as the Divine Book and purified Allah-SWT's Revelations from the alterations made by the Jews. Prophet Isa-AS was given the Bible and since it was a Divine Book it possessed both qualities, the lights as well as the guidance. It contained the spiritual states and the Barakah, and a code of life, the teachings. The raising of the Holy Prophet-SW was clearly stated in the Torah in much detail, so much so that even the character traits of the Companions-RAU were also listed. Similarly when Bible was revealed it verified all the prophecies and also announced the advent of the Holy Prophet-SW . It is important to remember that the Divine Books contain both, information as well as Commandments. For example, information like the Unity of Allah-SWT , the Divine Attributes, the Angels, the Hereafter, the Paradise and the Hell etc never changes. Prophet Adam-AS proclaimed, 'La Ilaha illAllah-SWT ’s (there is no Ilaha except Allah-SWT ) and until the Holy Prophet-SW this formed the first part of the Kalimah of every Prophet-AS. If the information changes and two versions are given on a single topic, only one can be true. Therefore, information’s are never abrogated.


The second category, the Commandments, demand His-SWT obedience. It does not mean following a certain ritual or an action but whatever is enjoined is to be obeyed and whatever is prohibited must be abandoned. For instance, offering Salat at a time when it is not permitted or fasting on the Eid Day is a crime, as the real objective is His-SWT obedience. Above all, Allah-SWT is the Wisest. Who-SWT keeps changing Commandments with the passage of time for the convenience of mankind. As the civilization evolved and the increase in human knowledge and progress in capabilities necessitated changes, these were made accordingly. Every Divine Command, whenever it was enforced, was not only correct but also a necessity. Every Divine Book dished out excellence in precepts and practices as well as in spiritualism. It contained guidance, advice, love and admonition on every aspect of reformation of mankind and society. But to attain guidance one should have the capacity, a heart which is connected to Allah-SWT , at least to some minimal degree. It should feel His-SWT Awe. Pin hopes on Him-SWT and fear His-SWT Independence. Only then can a person benefit and avail the advantages of the Holy Books. On the other hand, if his heart is dead, nothing can he gained from the Divine Scriptures. This explains why those who claim to believe in the Bible fail to act according to it. For instance, when the prophecies of the raising of the Holy Prophet-SW and the qualities of his illustrious personality together with the command to believe in him-SW are all stated in the Bible why do the Christians not believe? What good can it serve to be a Christian, whereas those who reject the decisions of Allah-SWT amply prove their wickedness?


Distinctive Features of the Quran

The Book revealed upon the Holy Prophet-SW excels all preceding Books in terms of Barakah and spiritual states since it endorses and corrects all previous Scriptures by verifying the truth and filtering the falsehood fabricated and added to them. The preceding Books were revealed to limited populace for particular periods of time. But the Book revealed to the Holy Prophet-SW is for the entire mankind till the end of time. It,   therefore, contains unlimited Barakah and knowledge and protects and corrects contents of the preceding Divine Scriptures. Therefore, the Holy Prophet-SW must take decisions according to the laws laid down by Allah-SWT without caring for peoples' opinions, counsels and their vested interests. The truth is what has been revealed to the Holy Prophet-SW and all the preceding Commandments contrary to the Quran have been absolved. Besides, the Jews and Christian have become habitual of acquiring temporal benefits in the name of Allah-SWT and religion, so as such their opinions are of no consequence.


The question why Allah-SWT changes His-SWT Commandments is absurd, as He-SWT acts on His-SWT free will; He-SWT has enjoined obligatory worships according to times, circumstances and capacities of human beings. He-SWT has specified the lawful and the forbidden. But the real thing is to obey Him-SWT as He-SWT desires and not to do actions for their own sake. What needs to be seen is the speed, the sincerity, the enthusiasm and the courage with which one execute Allah-SWT's Commands in order to attain His-SWT nearness. Practice is not an end in itself. Murder is a grave crime under normal circumstances, but to abstain from it during Jihad and spare a non-believer on the battlefield becomes a crime too. The question is not whether to kill or not to kill but of His-SWT obedience and the fervours behind it. Everyone shall ultimately be gathered before Allah-SWT where truth and falsehood shall lay bare and those who do not seem convinced here shall know the truth there. So O' Prophet-SW ! Provide justice according to Allah-SWT's Book, and seek His-SWT Protection against these wily people lest they misguide you. They have plunged so deep into the quagmire that whoever holds their hand is bound to fall with them. So you-SW ought to be just and fair, and even if they do not become Muslims, decide the case according to their laws given in their Book as verified by the Quran, without any let or hindrance.


This brings out the fact that the cases of Jews and Christians living in a Muslim State will be decided in accordance with their religion. But this in no way provides a ground for permitting organizations or movements which use the garb of Islam but propagate and hold beliefs contradicting those given by Islam, the Prophethood, the Hereafter etc. Such factions must not be allowed to decide matters in accordance with their concocted religion. Such transgressors shall be declared as apostates. However, if there is no conflict in the basic tenets, but only in the offshoots, then such a conflict is meritorious as it leads to further clarification of facts. Thus Qadianis or any such sects (Fiqah) must repent, else the Islamic Government must declare them apostates and punish them. Therefore, if such people do not obey the Holy Prophet-SW there is nothing strange, because to remain deprived of his Barakah is their lot and a Divine Punishment. To renounce the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet-SW is indeed a punishment from Allah-SWT as proclaimed by the Quran: "Then if they turn away, know you that Allah-SWT wishes to afflict them for some of their sins. And verily many of the mankind are transgressors" (5:49).


If people do not obey the Holy Prophet-SW it is because We-SWT have punished them for their misconduct and have denied them the capacity to do good. They have lost all sense and that is why they ignore the teachings of the Holy Prophet-SW and follow the pre-lslamic ways of ignorance. On the other hand are those who have been blessed with an unwavering trust. Faith, the knowledge and inner states together constitute trust. So those who have trust, for them nobody's decision can be more perfect than Allah-SWT's. Even if they have to lay down their lives according to Allah-SWT's decision they still cherish His-SWT decision as the most appropriate and exquisite.