We-SWT have given you a victory manifest, that is, the event of Hudaibiyah is the Holy Prophet-SW ‘s victory. It was in 6th A.H. when he-SW dreamt that he-SW and his-SW Companions-RAU entered the city of Makkah and after taking off Ihram some had their heads shaved off while others trimmed their hair, and he-SW was handed over key of the Kabah. When the Companions-RAU heard his-SW dream, everyone was excited to go along as a Prophet-AS’s dream is indeed a revelation. Taking note of the exuberance, the Holy Prophet-SW consented to go. The dream had, however, given no indication of time, but the possibility of its coming true immediately was there though it was realized on the Conquest of Makkah, while the journey to Hudaibiyah was also declared as a victory. Most of the Companions-RAU observed that people consider the day when Makkah was taken as the day of Conquest, but they take Hudaibiyah as the day of Conquest of Makkah.
According to many reports the Holy Prophets-SW was escorted by 1400 Companions-RAU, who carried only the personal swords. The sacrificial animals also accompanied and the believers got into Ihram at Zul-Halifa, where a beautiful masjid stands today. When the Makkans got the news, they held counsel and decided that if the believers were allowed to perform Umrah, it would cause them great embarrassment in the Arab world who will generally think that the Holy Prophet-SW had prevailed. So they raised a force and camped outside the Sacred Precincts to deny the believers an entry. A tribe from Banu Thaqif of Taif also joined in. This force was commanded by Khalid bin Walid-RAU, who had not yet converted to Islam. When the Holy Prophet-SW arrived at Hudaibiyah, he deputed a contingent led by Hadhrat `Ibad bin Bashir-RAU to array against the enemy. Meanwhile it was time for Salat-e-Zuhar.
Salat al Khauf
The Holy Prophet-SW led the Salat while the Makkans looked on. When it was over Khalid bin Walid-RAUcommented that a good chance to attack had been lost. However, he would now wait for the next Salat and assault when the believers are all in Sajdah. Right then Allaah-SWT revealed Salat al Khauf. The Holy Prophet-SW was now to divide the army into two parts, each offering two Rak'at in turn and a miracle also manifested on the occasion.
The Makkans had already taken control over the available water source. On the believers' side was a well with scant water. The Holy Prophet-SW put his saliva in it and directed his Companions-RAU to pierce his arrow in the well, which swelled up to facilitate replenishment with bare hands.
Now the negotiations began. The Makkan delegation headed by Badil bin Warqä, who later converted to Islam, informed the Holy Prophet-SW that the Quraish would not allow him-SW and his-SW Companions-RAU to enter Makkah. His-SW return would, therefore, avert the battle. He-SW, in turn, told him that they had not come with the intention of fighting but only to perform `Umrah. But if they were denied an entry into the Sacred Precincts they would certainly fight to avail their common right. Since the Quraish already stand weakened by battles, they might enter into a truce with the believers and leave them to the Arabs to reckon with. Their ends would be automatically served if they are overcome. On the contrary, the Quraish would get some respite for reinforcing themselves. They could then decide whether to embrace Islam or to fight the believers.
Badil bin Warqa returned but nobody was ready to listen to the proposal he had brought along save the chief of Banu Thaqif 'Arwa bin Mas`ud Thaqfi, who approved of it. The Quraish deputed him as their negotiator and he pleaded to the Holy Prophet-SW that it would not be proper if the Quraish are destroyed at his-SW hands, being his-SW own nation. There was a sporadic exchange of hot words between him and the Companions-RAU yet he observed the environment very closely. He noticed that when the Holy Prophet-SW spat, his-SW Companions-RAU leapt to take it on their hands and rubbed it on their faces. When he-SW performed ablution, they would not let the water fall on the ground and would wipe their faces with it. And when he-SW spoke there was a pin drop silence. When `Arwa Thaqfi returned to inform the Quraish that he had visited the Courts of Roman and African Emperors, but never before did he see such respect and devotion as the Companions-RAU displayed for the Holy Prophet-SW. They were in Ihram having sacrificial animals with them so they should be allowed to perform `Umrah, he recommended. But the Quraish refused and `Arwäh went his own way, disassociating himself from them.
The diplomatic efforts continued one way or the other. Finally the Holy Prophet-SW sent Hadhrat `Uthman-RAU to Makkah to parley with the chieftains of Quraish, and to reassure those believers who had been unable to migrate to Madinah for reasons beyond control. As he reached the enemy camp, Aman bin Saeed from Banu Saeed, later converted to Islam, escorted him to Makkah under his protection. Hadhrat 'Uthman-RAU met all the chieftains one by one and explained the Holy Prophet-SW‘s proposal. He also met and reassured the believers and stayed in Makkah for three nights. The Quraish permitted him Tawaf of the Kabah, but he declined that when the Holy Prophet-SW was being denied Umrah, how could he avail the offer.
Meanwhile the Quraish deputed seventy fighters to ambush the believers, but they were captured by the Companions-RAU. The Makkans detained Hadhrat Uthman-RAU and a few believers who had managed to stealthily enter Makkah. Soon, a rumour spread that Hadhrat Uthman-RAU had been martyred. The Holy Prophet-SW gathered his Companions-RAU and took a ba’it (oath) on death; that they would fight to the finish and even if a single believer survived, he would not surrender. He also included Hadhrat `Uthman-RAU in this oath by placing his own hand in his other hand, denoting bait by him.
Scared, the Makkans counseled to find a way whereby the Holy Prophets-SW may return and the Quraish could save face. They offered the believers to come for `Umrah next year and stay in Makkah for three days through Suhail bin `Amar. The Holy Prophet-SW accepted it after a detailed discourse. A formal pact was to be scribed and the Holy Prophets-SW told Hadhrat `Ali-RAU to commence: "In the Name of Allah-SWT, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful". Suhail objected that they were not familiar with this and that the traditional words: "In Your Name O' Rabb-SWT be written instead. He-SW agreed and asked Hadhrat 'Ali-RAU to write that the pact was being entered into by Muhammad-SW, Allah-SWT‘s Messenger. Suhail now suggested that Muhammad-SW bin `Abdullah be written, for had they accepted him as Allah-SWT‘s Messenger-SW, there would be no conflict. So the Holy Prophet-SW bid Hadhrat 'Ali-RAU to do so who strongly protested that he could not possibly carry out this deletion. Two men from the Ansar also held his hand against doing so.
Another Miracle Manifested
The Holy Prophet-SW did not know how to read and write, yet he got hold of the paper and scribed in Arabic: "This is a pact between Muhammad-SW bin `Abdullah-SW and Suhail bin `Amar. There will be no war between us for ten years. It will be peace and none will invade one another." Other terms were then spelled out. The Holy Prophets-SW was asked to return and come back the following year for `Umrah. It was further resolved that if anyone from the infidels migrated to the believers without permission from his master, he would be returned even if he had embraced Islam. But if a Muslim came to the Makkans, he would not be extradited. Moreover, the Arabs other than Makkans were free to join in the truce on either side.
Outwardly the terms of truce were as if accepted under duress. The Companions-RAU were deeply depressed, especially Hadhrat `Umar-RAU, who wondered why the dream of Allah-SWT‘s Prophet-SW had not been fulfilled? The Holy Prophets-SW assured him that it would undoubtedly come true, for after all he-SW had not prescribed any particular time for its fulfillment. And that Allaah-SWT would not let him-SW down, as it was His-SWT Command that he-SW had executed.
The Holy Prophet's-SW Compliance with the Pact
In the meantime Abu Jandal-RAU, son of Suhail bin `Amar, who had converted to Islam and had been a captive in his father's house where he was tortured, escaped and joined the believers. The Holy Prophets-SW comforted him that Allaah-SWT would soon make it easier for him as well as the other Muslims, so he should be patient and was promptly repatriated to the Makkans. This Truce was also signed by Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq-RAU,`Umar-RAU, `Abdur Rehman bin `Auf-RAU, Abdullah bin Suhail bin `Umar-RAU, S’ad bin Abi Waqas-RAU, Muhammad bin Musalima-RAU and 'Ali-RAU .The Holy Prophet-SW shaved off his-SW head, offered the sacrifice and opened his-SW Ihram, followed by the Companions-RAU. They all set off to Madinah and their food supplies ran out en route.
Yet Another Miracle
They halted at `Asfan and the Holy Prophet-SW had a piece of cloth spread out and invited the Companions-RAU to lay out any leftover food on it. He-SW then raised his hands in prayer and told everyone to eat. The entire legion ate to their fill and also refilled their containers, yet the quantity of the food remained the same. It was on this return journey that Surah Fatah was revealed at Kara Ghamim highlighting that the Hudaibiyah Truce was indeed very auspicious. The Holy Prophet-SW now went all out to subdue the Jews of Khyber, acquired booty with best weaponry and shattered the might of infidelity. He-SW also sent letters to Kings inviting them to embrace Islam. The believers got the opportunity to propagate Din in peace and within two years a large number converted to Islam.
The Quraish, however, violated the Truce which is widely known and is not being recapitulated for fear of protraction. This indeed paved the way for the Conquest of Makkah whence an army of ten thousand accompanied the Holy Prophet-SW. The Makkans could not even imagine fighting such a powerful force, and thus the prophecy by this Ayah 'We-SWT have given you a victory manifest' was fulfilled. The taxing moments of trial with reference to the Holy Prophet-SW became a source of forgiveness for all lapses of the believers. Prophets-AS in any case are innocent, yet even if they omit something desirable, Allaah-SWT at times refers to it as an error because of their exalted status. It is in the same context that forgiveness is being announced here. And because of the Holy Prophet-SW, this reward was conferred on the believers too.
Ultimate Blessing is the Establishment of Islamic State
And Allaah-SWT wills to perfect His-SWT blessings unto the Holy Prophet-SW, who already enjoys Prophet-hood and Messenger-ship. Now was the time that a stable and strong Islamic State is established under him-SW wherein he-SW as well as Islam is held in the highest esteem. Of course, it is Allah-SWT Who sent peace and tranquility to enhance the levels of the believers’ faith so that they are steadfast on their Prophet-SW ‘s obedience. When they were ordered to fight and summoned for a ba’it on death, they readily complied, thus augmenting their faith. Otherwise, had Allaah-SWT aimed only at destroying the Makkans, He-SWT could have inflicted any calamity on them, as the entire legions of heavens and the earth are in His-SWT control. But He-SWT chose to bless them, for He-SWT is All Knowing and Absolute in Wisdom. It was because of it that the infidels suffered losses while the portals of Jannah were opened up for the believing men and women, wherein they shall abide, a grand success indeed. The polytheist and the hypocrite men and women who nurture evil thoughts about Allaah-SWT are deprived of His-SWT Mercy and an inferno awaits them in Hell, indeed a morbid place.
`O' Prophet-SW! You-SW have been sent as a witness; that means that Allaah-SWT shall accept only that action to which you testify as done in compliance with your instructions. You also forewarn people that the good shall be rewarded with good and evil with evil. Your presence amongst them is a Divine reward as it is because of you that the blessing of faith is dissipated.
O’ People! Believe in Allaah-SWT and in His-SWT Messenger, which is the very foundation of faith. And if someone claims to believe in Allaah-SWT but not in His-SWT Prophet-SW, he refutes the words of Allah-SWT, which is disbelief. The believers must remain at the beck and call of the Holy Prophet-SW and thus display total devotion to Allah-SWT, as service and obedience to Him-SWT is indeed the acknowledgement of His-SWT Magnificence.
The Capacity for Zikr
And the believers must constantly remember Allaah-SWT and hymn His-SWT Praises. The Quranic mode of expression here calls for firm faith together with readiness to serve the Holy Prophet-SW with one's life and wealth. His-SW deep devotion enhances the capacity to remember and praise Allaah-SWT .
Taking b’ait with the Holy Prophet-SW at Hudaibiyah under the tree is like taking b'ait with Allaah-SWT . His-SWT Hand over their hands, as clarified earlier refers to the end results. It means His-SWT nearness, His-SWT constant succour, His-SWT guidance and His-SWT Pleasure. That is why this pledge has been named as B'ait-e-Ridhwän.
B’ait is a pledge of co-operation and conformity, for which one gives his hand in the hands of the one with whom he takes it. This practice is backed by Sunnah, though not compulsory, and one can take a pledge even without holding hands. However, once b'ait is taken it must be honoured. A breach of bait has serious personal repercussions. In case of a Prophet-AS, its breach amounts to self-destruction. It is also not advisable to breach the b'ait of an Amir or a Shaikh, unless so dictated by Shari`ah. Those who break it on personal conveniences or in arrogance not only ruin themselves spiritually but also face temporal humiliation in the world. And those who honour it are greatly rewarded by Allaah-SWT .