The Holy Prophet--SW
‘s attention is invited towards those people, who at one stage were ardent supporters of Jihad and were hard to restrain. Whence they were commanded to abide by the tenets of Islam and be particular about Salat, fast and Zakat, and to enjoin Islam upon their selves, they were anxious to go for Jihad and fighting. They would say how could they tolerate people who repudiate Allah-SWT's Word conveyed by the Holy Prophet--SW
they said that they would light such flagrant disbelievers into submission, whoever they may be. But then, they were instructed to be patient and exercise restraint. This in fact was the character of the hypocrites, who had penetrated the ranks of the Muslims when the latter migrated to Madinah. The above dialogues are of the hypocrites, which some scholars have wrongfully associated to the believers and have translated these Ayat very apologetically. However, majority of the Commentators have not erred as the very next Ayah mentions the hypocrites. Besides the life of the believers was very simple: they used to accept an order as soon as they received it and that was all, while posing and demanding is itself a manifestation of hypocrisy. Allah-SWT asserts that when Jihad was actually enjoined upon them, they were petrified with terror. They fear the infidels more than they fear Allah-SWT . And it is a rule that only people who are sincere and enforce Islam on themselves, and their conscience can also enforce it on others. But those who estrange themselves from Islam, only through hypocrisy try to use Islam as a stepping ladder to gain power.
The Companions-RAU had embraced Islam with their hearts and souls and thus became the source of spreading it all over the world. Whereas the false claimants of Islam today drink alcohol in MNA’s Hostels, entertain themselves with dances and also discuss how to implement Islam! If we take a look at the lives of Allah-SWT's friends, we see that all they possess is sincerity, the warmth, which enlightens the hearts of millions. The rulers have authority but no sincerity that is why they fail to achieve any goal. It is very important to reform one's own self otherwise one starts to fear infidels, so much so that the fear of infidels surpasses the fear of Allah-SWT . Anyone who fears Allah-SWT also expects His-SWT Mercy whereas from the infidels only harm is expected. So the hypocrites under discussion, in an attempt to hide the fear in their hearts, beg Allah-SWT that if only He-SWT had given them some more time, they would have prepared themselves better before going to war. They say that He-SWT did not enjoin Jihad upon Muslims giving them a respite of thirteen long years in their Makkan era, whereas here in Madinah He-SWT has ordered it so soon!
But Allah-SWT the Munificent, does not scold them for this expression, rather tells His-SWT beloved, the Holy Prophet--SW
to guide them gently, and make them realize that this world is a temporary abode, which no one has ever hastened completely. It is stained with hardships and turmoil and one day it has to be given up. Whereas for those who make friends with Allah-SWT and develop a truly sincere and deep-rooted friendship, awaits an ever increasing treasure in the Hereafter, the treasure of satisfaction, peace and tranquility lo which there is no decline, and which shall never be retracted. But to earn this, the heart must be so linked to Allah-SWT that the slightest deviation from His-SWT Path should ache it. Death should seem easier than indulgence in sin. If they achieve this, they must rest assured that none of their efforts shall go waste. No good deed of theirs shall be ignored, no matter how insignificant. And as far as life and death are concerned, they ought to know that death is inevitable; it will have to be experienced. You may hide in an impregnable fortress, or take refuge in the most secret of places, when the time comes they will have to die. There is no escape. But if they accept the order to fight for Allah-SWT with all sincerity, the maximum that can happen is that they will die on the battlefield.
But behold; being slain in Allah-SWT's Way will give them a life, which will humble death. But these hypocrites are so unfortunate that they attribute victory to mere coincidence, and say that the Muslims had no strategic sense; and when they suffer defeat or losses, they start blaming the Holy Prophet--SW
. They say that it is because of him--SW
that they are in trouble. So Allah-SWT asks His-SWT Prophet-SW to let these hypocrites know, that everything is from Allah-SWT . How inferior a people the hypocrites are, that they do not understand anything at all! Among the sources of guidance, the last to come but the most effective and superior is the Holy Prophet--SW
, and the Quran. In spite of these if people fail to understand then their ignorance knows no bounds. Let them know that all bounties are only from Allah-SWT . Even if we perform good deeds and observe all prescribed forms of worship we cannot thank Allah-SWT enough for favours He-SWT has already done to us: our physical capabilities, intellect, vision, thought and discretion, in short, there is so much we have already received. Whatever we get over and above these is purely by Divine Grace and the grief we encounter is often due to our own misdeeds.
A non-believer's worldly turmoil is inflicted as a punishment and is just a fleeting glimpse of what awaits him in the Hereafter, while a believer's suffering becomes the expiation of his sins, and is called ''compensation for past deeds." Sometimes the hardships encountered by a believer even prove to be a source of spiritual progress. Such troubles befall special and chosen people and are known as "rise in stations". Allah-SWT proclaims that the Holy Prophet--SW
is the most splendid link between Him-SWT and mankind and through him--SW
people can put forth requests, seek solutions to their problems and receive Allah-SWT's verdicts. At the same time they can also enlighten their hearts. The very personage of the Holy Prophet--SW
is the greatest of Allah-SWT's blessings upon mankind. Allah-SWT Himself suffices as the witness to His-SWT beloved's Prophethood. There is no need for any other witness. When Allah-SWT bears witness, He-SWT does it in a grand style. He-SWT made the whole life of the Holy Prophet--SW
an absolute miracle; his--SW
childhood, adolescence, youth, appointment, migration, Madni life and eternal life, all are miracles in themselves. On top of everything, the Book revealed unto him--SW
i.e. Quran is itself a miracle. Moreover anyone who submits to the Holy Prophet--SW
indeed submits to Allah-SWT . Whenever the Holy Prophet--SW
speaks a word, it is only from Allah-SWT . What greater blessing can there be? But to gain anything from the Holy Prophet-SW
, faith in Allah-SWT is a prerequisite. The heart must be imbued with His-SWT Greatness; it should yearn for hearing and obeying His-SWT Commands. When this is achieved then there is no problem. When such a person listens to the Holy Prophet--SW
he in fact listens to Allah-SWT ; when he obeys the Holy Prophet--SW
, he obeys Allah-SWT . As for those who are deprived of this great honour and turn away by their own choice, the Holy Prophet--SW
is not responsible for their conduct. Allah has given human beings the right to choose, even if they choose to use this right against Him-SWT , He-SWT will not prevent them forcibly from doing so. He-SWT has, however, warned mankind of the dire consequences of disobedience and has repeatedly informed them that this path leads to damnation.
The hypocrites profess their allegiance to the Holy Prophet--SW
, but at night when they gather in their homes, conspire against the orders of the Holy Prophet--SW
. Ant whatever they do, no matter how covertly, Allah-SWT registers it and the record of their deeds is being scribed. Therefore, Allah asks His-SWT Beloved Prophet--SW
not to care about them. Or may be this is not the true sense of this Ayah. It should rather be translated as: "overlook them", which covers both aspects. Firstly in the affairs of the State, they should be ignored and not be feared, as they cannot disrupt anything. Secondly, they should not be humiliated or disgraced by disclosing their real characters or by shunning them from gatherings where the Holy Prophet'--SW
imparts knowledge. The Holy Prophet--SW
may forgive and overlook their behaviour and have faith in Allah-SWT , for He-SWT is the greatest Helper. Such is the generosity extended even to a hypocrite, that he should not be castigated, as this would permanently and completely deprive him of blessings. While there can still be hope for some reformation if he is allowed to stay in contact.
The scholars should, therefore, treat people in a way that those who are practically awry from Islam should be drawn closer. Such people should not be looked down upon, rather, they should be loved as the aim is to reform them and not to get them punished. Punishment will be inflicted automatically upon misdeeds. Those who are outwardly Muslims and yet harbour doubts in their hearts, are strange people! Do they not contemplate and ponder over the Quran? Why can't they appreciate the exquisite arrangement and coherent sequence, in which not only the universe, its problems and their solutions but also the needs of the eternal life have been explained? It discusses at length not only the sources for satisfying these requirements but also the reasons and effects, if these are not fulfilled. Had this Quran not been a Divine Revelation, it could have never discussed life before birth and after death, as no philosopher today has been able to comprehend these phenomena and none has ever dared to comment. In other words, the philosophers and thinkers have no clue over the Hereafter, which is eternal and major, but, they only discuss this short and minor span of life. Even then they do not agree on any single theory and often contradict their own opinions, admitting that their previous views have proved to be wrong and their latest findings should be considered. The same would have been the state of Quran and it would have been replete with conflicting statements had it been a human Endeavour. But it is not so; the arguments given in the Quran are so solid that whatever information it has provided has never changed nor will it ever be.
The ordinances issued, however, continued to modify according to peoples temperaments, needs of the time and above all the caliber of people and without the slightest doubt. The invitation to reflect on Quran is open to all, but it must be remembered that just as the text of the Quran was conveyed by the Holy Prophet--SW
, only he--SW
is authorized to interpret it. Staying within the framework of his guidance, and having the knowledge required to understand Quran and Hadith, one is welcome to reflect upon, ponder over or do Ijtehad in Allah-SWT ‘s Book.
The word Ijtehad is used on purpose since today people are very fond of embarking upon it. In fact the door of Ijtehad is still open. However, in my humble opinion, the preceding noble A'imah practically have plugged the need for Ijtehad. Every question that arises has a solution available in their interpretation. Besides every person's capability to reflect and ponder varies according to his knowledge, perception and understanding; but no one can make any interpretations outside the limits demarcated by the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet--SW
. Therefore, the attempts of those modern interpreters who aim to give new meanings to the Quran under the cover of Ijtehad will prove to be abortive. To interpret the Quran is the office of the Holy Prophet alone--SW
. Only he--SW
is authorized to declare what words and Ayat constitute the Book, and to explain their meanings. He--SW
doubtlessly proved equal to his--SW
task. Not only did he--SW
expound the meanings of the Quran verbally, but also presented before the world a system of Government, a society and a State whose every aspect was a manifestation of Allah-SWT's Book. Today, if someone wants to do Ijtehad, the only way is to seek a solution of his problem from the Quran and Hadith or to look for a similar instance from the works of the Ai’mah and reach a logical answer in that light, This is what Ijtehad or analogy is and this has never been forbidden.
Another vexing characteristic of the hypocrites is that whenever they hear something, whether it is about welfare, peace or fear; whether it is about victory or the slaying of Muslims somewhere; they at once spread it around. What they should do instead is to report it to the Holy Prophet--SW
, or to relevant authorities, so that the news can be investigated and verified, and only the facts, whether of victory or of any loss, are released.
The Holy Prophet--SW
as well as the men in authority are being ordered to investigate any reports they may receive. The topic concerning the men in authority (Ulu-al-Amr) has been previously discussed and may be seen for reference. It is also one of the responsibilities of Prophethood to thoroughly verify the truth of incoming information. Scholars, jurists and Government are also obligated to carefully look into matters pertaining to religion. The word of any common man is not to be followed in such matters; rather, scholars and jurists should issue the verdict after thorough research. Every commoner does not qualify for such a tedious job. A layman should follow the guidance of researchers, conforming with what they say. This is called Taqleed Allah-SWT has authorized the rulers to implement laws, and make people comply with them. What the authorities desire people to abide by is known as the law, no matter how tyrannical it may be. The rulers should fear Allah-SWT and should only enforce upon people what Allah-SWT and His-SWT Prophet--SW
desire to be obeyed. This is Islam.
But why would hypocrites do all this? They would only make false claims, or like now-a-days, make masses follow them by fooling people through hollow slogans. The latter case was an impossibility in that era, as Allah-SWT says; had it not been for His-SWT Grace and His-SWT Mercy, the Muslim would have followed Satan and fallen victims to the hypocrites misgivings. This means that sincerity with Allah-SWT and the Holy Prophet--SW
earned the Muslims Allah-SWT ’s Grace and Protection, which guarded them against Satanic whispers. Yet there were those who can never be misled by the Satan. Some of them have nothing of their own, no desire, no heart, no thought they have submitted them all to Allah-SWT . So what can Satan possibly take from them?
Although such people may have been few, but they were there. They were those who crossed all limits of love and devotion, and showed the zenith of love to the world. They demonstrated that a person can go to such limits in the love of another person, where he loses his own self and rises above the thoughts of benefit and loss. Obviously when one submits everything and has no desire left for more then what is there to lose or gain? Among the Companions-RAU were people who were left with no heart that could desire something; with no mind to think on their own but only the mete sight of the Holy Prophet--SW
was their life; obedience to him--SW
was their treasure, and allegiance to him--SW
was their life's earning.
Anyway the Holy Prophet--SW
is being comforted not to care about rumours. Rumours and misinformation are effective tools of war even today, and their use is a part of strategy. Spreading demoralizing news amongst the enemy is a part of warfare and is referred to as the fifth column. The Muslim State of Madinah, which was then in its infancy would have really been affected by such rumours since its enemies were well trained; mighty warriors equipped with weapons who also outnumbered the Muslims.
Allah-SWT tells His-SWT Beloved Prophet--SW
to fight in the cause of Allah-SWT with all his--SW
power. Allah-SWT asserts that the Holy Prophet--SW
is only responsible for his--SW
own self. All others will be accountable for their conduct; however, they must be stressed upon to tight for Allah-SWT . When there is need, Jihad becomes obligatory and the more one has responsibility the more he is obliged lo fight. The infidels had challenged the Muslims at the Battle of Uhad that they would face them again at Badr in the month of Ziq’ad. The Muslims had to show up else the infidels would have been encouraged. The hypocrites were busy spreading rumours, as they in their heart were the agents of the non-believers. They would say discouraging things like the wounds received at Uhad are still not fully healed or the Makkans have made heavy preparations this time. Allah-SWT Commands His-SWT Beloved Prophet--SW
not to retreat, even if there is no one else ready by his side, as he--SW
is only accountable for his life, and that he--SW
should offer. A point to ponder here is that the scholars and spiritual leaders should be the first to go for Jihad, even if no one else joins them. They should realize that they are the successors of the Holy Prophet--SW
. Yet Allah-SWT advises the Holy Prophet--SW
not to lose hope in the believers, and to urge them to join in Jihad. Therefore, when the Holy Prophet--SW
ordered seventy Companions-RAU to go for fighting, they at once agreed and left for Badr. This is known as Badr-e-Sughra (Badr Minor). Allah-SWT announces that He-SWT is all Powerful and if He-SWT wishes, He-SWT can deter the non believers from fighting as they cannot fight Allah-SWT . Allah-SWT is the Mightiest of all as well as the Severest of punishers. If He-SWT wants, He-SWT can condemn the non-believer to death and reward the believer with Shahadah. Or He-SWT can avert the war altogether and this is exactly what happened. The hearts of the Makkans were over whelmed with Hear, and they did not show up. Now all those who had advised or suggested rightfully will be rewarded accordingly, and those who tried to promote ideas and suggestions detrimental to the cause of Islam shall be punished. The hypocrites tried to dissuade the people from Jihad; whether or not they succeeded in their plan, they will definitely receive their share of punishment. On the other hand the believers who put forth sincere suggestions and obeyed when ordered will be duly rewarded, regardless of the fact that the war took place or not.
The same rule will apply to recommendation, which has two aspects. In the first case, a person deserves a certain thing but cannot demand his right because of his poverty or insignificance. Making a recommendation for him to receive what is rightfully his, is desirable. This will indeed be a noble intercession. His case will be decided by the relevant authorities who cannot be forced to favour him. However, the person who interceded has done his duty and will be rewarded. In the second case, making recommendation for someone unjustly, or helping someone in getting something, which was not his right, by using influence and connections, is wrong. Whether that person benefits from such intercession or not, but the interceder surely abets the sin. Whenever we, whether for money or for a favour in return, help someone in getting something which he does not deserve, whether he attains it or not, but we certainly earn our share of sin.
Nowadays the worst scenario is the election and the way voting is done, Efforts are exerted to elect all those, who by no means deserve that office. May Allah-SWT forgive us and guide us, that we may always keep in mind His-SWT Greatness and remember that He-SWT has power over everything! Only He-SWT bestows livelihood and status; honour and comforts, good life in this world and the next. He-SWT is the Absolute Ruler. Allah-SWT also tells us to return the greetings when greeted in better words and wishes, or at least in the same words. The people of the civilized nations of the world have traditions, of greeting one another when meeting or departing, using good wishes and phrases of gratitude, or words showing love. The Arabs too, in their pre Islamic days, greeted one another with words such as 'Hayyak Allah-SWT ' (May Allah-SWT preserve you) etc but Islam focused its way of greeting at His-SWT Attributive name Salam (the Giver of peace) which encompasses all forms of welfare, always and everywhere. It ordered into practice saying of "Assalaam-u-AIaikum (peace be on you) when coming across each other. This is a comprehensive prayer not only for the long life of the addressee but for the protection from all hardships of the world; it is not only a wish for the health of the greeted but also for him to remain pious and righteous; it is a prayer encompassing all aspects of temporal and eternal lives including life, death, grave and accountability. What an incredible prayer! If only we could say these words to one another from the core of our hearts! The least of its effects is that a person wishing for the safety of the other will at least not like to become a cause of trouble for him. It is thus a guarantee to the addressee, that his life and honour have no danger or threat from the addresser. Allah-SWT has ordered to return the greetings in better words. Once a person came to see the Holy Prophet--SW
and said "Assalaam-u-'Alaikum". The Holy Prophet--SW
replied "Wa 'Alaikum-us-Salam Wa Rahmat-u-Allah-SWT ;" (and peace be on you and Allah-SWT's Mercy); another visitor greeted the Holy Prophet--SW
with this renewed version and the Holy Prophet--SW
replied: "Wa 'Alaikum us Salam wa Rahmat ul Allah-SWT wa Barakatuhu;" adding (and His-SWT Barakah). Yet another visitor greeted the Holy Prophet--SW
with the latest greetings, the complete version of it, and he replied: kWa Alaik* (and on you). He requested the Holy Prophet--SW
that he had greeted the rest by adding some words to their greetings. The Holy Prophet'--SW
replied that you have not left anything for me to add.' He--SW
had already put together all the greetings, so the Holy Prophet--SW
simply returned them unto him.
The scholars conclude that it is not proper to exceed the three expressions of greetings mentioned above since only these three are proven by Sunnah. The conditions and prerequisites of greetings are mentioned in the Hadith. Such as if a group of people are sitting, the by passer must greet the group. People who are fewer in number must greet the larger group. The rider should greet the pedestrian. So much so that when passing through the graves of Muslims one must offer the greetings as recommended. To greet is Sunnah but to return it is a must, except in certain circumstances, such as if someone is offering the Salat, or reciting the Quran or busy in Allah-SWT's Zikr, in that case he does not have to reply when greeted. Even if the same person is met again and again during the day, he should be greeted every time. A lot of emphasis has been laid in the Ahadith on making this method of greetings a common practice in the Muslim society, as it promotes good relations. Allah-SWT surely will hold each and everyone accountable for their actions. He-SWT knows, what the tongue utters and what lies in the heart. Allah-SWT Alone is the One worthy of worship and obedience, and without any doubt He-SWT shall resurrect all people on the Day of Judgement. This is indeed the truth, and what Allah-SWT says is the greatest truth of all times.