سورة الروم   

Surah Name: Ar-Rum Meaning: The Romans

  • Revealed at Makkah
  • Total Number of Rukū / Sections 6
  • Total Number of Āyāt / Parts 60
  • Sūrah / Chapter number 30
  • Rukū / Section 1 contains Āyāt / Parts 10
  • Siparah / Volume 21




Alif. Lam. Mim.


غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ

Ghulibati a(l)rroom(u)

The Byzantines have been defeated.


فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ وَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ سَيَغْلِبُونَ

Fee adna alardi wahum min baAAdi ghalabihim sayaghliboon(a)

In a nearer land, and they, after being defeated, shall soon overcome.


فِي بِضْعِ سِنِينَ لِلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ مِن قَبْلُ وَمِن بَعْدُ وَيَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

Fee bidAAi sineena lillahi alamru min qablu wamin baAAdu wayawmaithin yafrahu almuminoon(a)

In a few years. Allah-SWT’s is the Command, before and after, and on that day the believers shall rejoice.


بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ يَنصُرُ مَن يَشَاء وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ

Binasri Allahi yansuru man yashao wahuwa alAAazeezu a(l)rraheem(u)

In Allah-SWT’s succour. He-SWT succours whom He-SWT will. And He-SWT is the Mighty, the Merciful


وَعْدَ اللَّهِ لَا يُخْلِفُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

WaAAda Allahi la yukhlifu Allahu waAAdahu walakinna akthara a(l)nnasi la yaAAlamoon(a)

This is Allah-SWT’s Promise and Allah-SWT does not fail His-SWT Promise. Yet most men know not.


يَعْلَمُونَ ظَاهِرًا مِّنَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ عَنِ الْآخِرَةِ هُمْ غَافِلُونَ

YaAAlamoona thahiran mina alhayati a(l)ddunya wahum AAani alakhirati hum ghafiloon(a)

They only know the outside appearance of the life of the world, and they! Of the Hereafter they are neglectful.


أَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ بِلِقَاء رَبِّهِمْ لَكَافِرُونَ

Awalam yatafakkaroo fee anfusihim ma khalaqa Allahu a(l)ssamawati wa(a)larda wama baynahuma illa bi(a)lhaqqi waajalin musamman wainna katheeran mina a(l)nnasi biliqai rabbihim lakafiroon(a)

Do they not ponder in their minds? Allah-SWT has not created the heavens and the earth and what is in-between except with a purpose and for an appointed term? And verily many men are disbelievers in the meeting of their Rabb-SWT


أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَثَارُوا الْأَرْضَ وَعَمَرُوهَا أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا عَمَرُوهَا وَجَاءتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ وَلَكِن كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

Awalam yaseeroo fee alardi fayanthuroo kayfa kana AAaqibatu allatheena min qablihim kanoo ashadda minhum quwwatan waatharoo alarda waAAamarooha akthara mimma AAamarooha wajaathum rusuluhum bi(a)lbayyinati fama kana Allahu liyathlimahum walakin kanoo anfusahum yathlimoon(a)

Have they not journeyed in the land and observed how has been the end of those before them? Those were stronger than these in power and they broke up the earth and they inhabited it with greater affluence than these have inhabited it, and their Messengers-AS came to them with evidences. And Allah-SWT was not one to wrong them, but they were used to wrong themselves.


ثُمَّ كَانَ عَاقِبَةَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاؤُوا السُّوأَى أَن كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا بِهَا يَسْتَهْزِؤُون

Thumma kana AAaqibata allatheena asaoo a(l)ssooa an kaththaboo biayati Allahi wakanoo biha yastahzioon(a)

Then the end of those who committed evil was evil, for they belied the Signs of Allah-SWT , and they were used to mock at them.


In The Name of Allah-SWT the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

A battle was fought between the Romans and the Persians. The former were People of the Book while the latter were Zoroastrians. Though they were both infidels, yet the Muslims had a soft corner for People of the Book, but they lost this battle. The Persians captured some of the cities along the border including Constantinople where Chosroes made a fire temple and the polytheists rejoiced. This Surah was revealed to announce that though the Romans had capitulated now yet they would prevail again in the coming years. So the polytheists’ rejoicing was short-lived. This indeed was a great prophecy as outwardly there were no signs of their victory and the polytheists were satisfied that a reversal was no longer possible. Allah-SWT reiterated that it would certainly happen and that would be a day of great celebration for the Muslims. And it did happen. The Muslims were greatly overjoyed because firstly, the prophecy of the Quran had come true thus manifesting a miracle of the Holy Prophet-SW, and secondly, at the very same time the Muslims had emerged victorious in a grand way in the Battle of Badr. Both the belligerents were infidel powers who were to fight Islam sooner or later, so the mutual fighting would have weakened them.


The assumption of the infidels that the Romans cannot win again is similar to their opinion about the believers that they will not be able to fight them. But their assessments are based on the strength of outward means while the victory comes by Allah-SWT’s succour at His-SWT Pleasure. He-SWT blessed the Muslims with a victory over the Makkans, which was apparently impossible. In the same way He-SWT made the Romans prevail over the Persians, for He-SWT indeed is all Prevailing and Merciful.


Allah-SWT ’s Word is ever inevitable, as He-SWT Himself enforces it. He-SWT never violates His-SWT Promise, but majority of people fail to appreciate this fact. They are engrossed in the worldly means, affluence and merry making, totally oblivious of Akhirah, whereas Allah-SWT’s Promise will surely prevail.


Did they ever contemplate over the immaculate proportion of whatever Allah-SWT has created in the heavens and the earth? A continuous evolution of things having specific properties made by a specific combination of constituents, in a universal system smoothly functioning without there ever being an error, is indeed remarkable. The sun, the moon, the rainfall, the winds, the plantation- everything is functioning as programmed. And when the same Magnificent Creator determines the time to resurrect everything, why do they think it would not happen? A majority of the people deny the Day of Judgment and the fact that they will have to stand in Allah-SWT’s Court. If they are blinded by their wealth and power, don't they travel on the land and witness the fate met by the infidels gone by? They were wealthier and more influential, enjoying much more power. Allah-SWT had sent His-SWT Messengers unto them with clear evidences, but they had refused to believe and were thus destroyed. Allah-SWT never wronged them rather they wronged themselves by opting for infidelity. So their fate turned out to be as evil as their conduct, for they not only resorted to denial but also derided Divine Revelations.