سورة البقرة   

Surah Name: Al-Baqarah Meaning:The Cow

  • Revealed at Madinah
  • The Longest Surah of the Quran.
  • This Surah, with reference to its revelation, is Madni and some of its Aayat and injunctions pertain to the very last period of Quranic revelation, but in order of placement it is in the very beginning. The Quran, an answer to the prayer contained in al-Fatihah, begins with this Surah. There was a basic difference in the life patterns of Makkah and Madinah. The addressees of Divine Revelation at Makkah in general, were the pagans and the idolaters; but at Madinah there were also people who considered themselves to be the nearest to Allah-SWT and the true followers of Prophet Musa--AS (Moses). Whereas, in reality, over the passage of time, they had not only forgotten his teachings, but had also distorted the Divine Scriptures. They had replaced worship with rituals, and true faith with absurd beliefs. Despite this they claimed to be on the right path. The Quran in the first place, highlighted the difference between belief and disbelief. Thus the very first Aayat of this Surah also spells out the fundamentals of Islam
  • Total Number of Rukū / Sections 40
  • Total Number of Āyāt / Parts 286
  • Sūrah / Chapter number 2
  • Rukū / Section 38 contains Āyāt / Parts 8
  • Siparah/ Volume 1 & 2


الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ سِرًّا وَعَلاَنِيَةً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahum bi(a)llayli wa(al)nnahari sirran waAAalaniyatan falahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoon(a)

Those who spend their possessions night and day, secretly and openly, shall have their reward with their Rabb-SWT . On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.


الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لاَ يَقُومُونَ إِلاَّ كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَحَلَّ اللّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا فَمَن جَاءهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىَ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Allatheena yakuloona a(l)rriba la yaqoomoona illa kama yaqoomu allathee yatakhabbatuhu a(l)shshaytanu mina almassi thalika biannahum qaloo innamaalbayAAu mithlu a(l)rriba waahalla Allahu albayAAa waharrama a(l)rriba faman jaahu mawAAithatun min rabbihi fa(i)ntaha falahu ma salafa waamruhu ila Allahi waman AAada faolaika ashabu a(l)nnari hum feeha khalidoon(a)

Those who devour usury will not rise except like one whom Satan has made deranged with his touch. This is because they say, "Trade is like usury" while Allaah-SWT has permitted trade and forbidden usury. Whoever desists after receiving the admonition from his Rabb-SWT , may keep his past gains, and his matter will be with Allaah-SWT . But those who revert, will be the inmates of the Fire, therein they shall abide forever.


يَمْحَقُ اللّهُ الْرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ وَاللّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ

Yamhaqu Allahu a(l)rriba wayurbee a(l)ssadaqati wa(A)llahu la yuhibbu kulla kaffarin atheem(in)

Allah-SWT destroys usury and augments charity. And Allaah-SWT does not love any ingrate sinner.


إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتَوُاْ الزَّكَاةَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Inna allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo a(l)ssalihati waaqamoo a(l)ssalata waatawoo a(l)zzakata lahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoon(a)

Surely those who believe and do good deeds, and establish Salat and give Zakat, their reward shall be with their Rabb-SWT . And on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَذَرُواْ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo ittaqoo Allaha watharoo ma baqiya mina a(l)rriba in kuntum mumineen(a)

O you who believe! Fear Allaah-SWT and give up all usury due to you, if you are believers.


فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُواْ فَأْذَنُواْ بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُؤُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لاَ تَظْلِمُونَ وَلاَ تُظْلَمُونَ

Fain lam tafAAaloo fathanoo biharbin mina Allahi warasoolihi wain tubtum falakum ruoosu amwalikum la tathlimoona wala tuthlamoon(a)

But if you do not, then take a notice of war from Allaah-SWT and His-SWT Messenger. And if you repent, then you shall be entitled to your principal sums. Do not wrong others, and you shall not be wronged.


وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَى مَيْسَرَةٍ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُواْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Wain kana thoo AAusratin fanathiratun ila maysaratin waan tasaddaqoo khayrun lakum in kuntum taAAlamoona

If the debtor is in difficulty, grant him respite till time of ease. But if you remit, it will be better for you, if you but knew.


وَاتَّقُواْ يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى اللّهِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ

Wa(i)ttaqoo yawman turjaAAoona feehi ila Allahi thumma tuwaffa kullu nafsin makasabat wahum la yuthlamoon(a)

And fear the Day when you shall be brought back to Allaah-SWT . Then every soul will be repaid in full what it has earned, and none shall be wronged.


In The Name of Allah-SWT the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

Those who spend their possessions ... nor shall they grieve.

Those who spend in Allah-SWT's Ways in public or in private and are the first to answer any call for it without let or hindrance, indeed follow the most illustrious Companion and the first Caliph, Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq-RUA. The poet of the East 'Allama Iqbal-RUA has exquisitely sketched his noble profile in a piece or Persian verse:

He kept our master at peace from foes

Of our valley of Sina, he was the sage;


His wealth was the rainfall that made the crops of the Ummah grow,

He was the second of the two, in the cave, in Badar and in the grave.


The acts of charity by the Companions-RUA and their sacrifices have adorned history and amazed the heavens. A people the like of whom the sun did not witness before, nor can hope for it ever after. Immense rewards await them for their devotions. They shall neither fear any wrong nor have any regrets over their past, nor any reservations for the future. Their tomorrow would always be brighter than today.


So anyone who will spend in the Cause of Allaah-SWT can hope for excellent rewards. Alms mean giving away wealth purely for seeking Allah-SWT's Pleasure and without any vested interests. Directly opposite to it is usury, which means taking someone's wealth without returning anything against it.


Those who devour usury... therein they shall abide forever

Here the expression, "Those who devour usury" alludes to those who take it irrespective of how they utilize it, whether on food or clothing or construction of houses, etc. All forms fall in the category of "devouring", as the one who takes it is in complete possession of the usury money and can use it any way he likes and there is no way it can ever be returned. On the Yaum al Qiyamah (Day of Judgement), such people will be standing as if Satan has rendered them lunatic by embracing them.


Influence of Satan and Jinn

This shows that due to the influence of Satan and Jinn, a person can lose senses or become a lunatic. The Quran, ‘Hadith’ and repeated observations, prove this fact. Physicians also agree that one of the causes of epilepsy, lunacy or unconsciousness could be the influence of Jinn. It must also be remembered that the requital is directly related to the action. In this world the usurer is so callous that he neither bothers about Allah-SWT's Commandments nor the distress and the misery of the poor. When he will rise on the Day of Resurrection, he would be in a state of lunacy as if possessed by a Jinn. This is because when he was alive, he used to say that usury was the same as trading; because the aim of trading is to earn profit and increase the wealth and usury also increases wealth, so why was trading allowed and usury forbidden? But he forgets that Allah-SWT, the Sovereign Master has allowed the one and disallowed the other, as He-SWT knows what is good and what is bad for His-SWT creation than the creation knows itself. The first thing is that Allaah-SWT is the Ruler. When He-SWT decrees, the matter is decided and no one has the right to challenge or question His-SWT decision.


Secondly the person claiming usury to be lawful was merely relying on the logical reasoning, while the decision is authoritative. Allah-SWT is not only the ruler but also the Rabb-SWT the Creator-SWT of all the systems of the world, aware of his creations, as well as of that, which is beneficial or harmful for them. So when He-SWT has declared usury as prohibited, it certainly has some pernicious aspects, whether we understand this partially or fail to comprehend it at all. It is possible for us to foresee our personal gain or loss to an extent, but the global effects of an act can only be known to the All-Knowing-SWT .


Anyone who after having received the Divine decision refrains from dealings involving usury and stops taking it retains whatever he has already taken Apparently his penitence is accepted, though only Allah-SWT , the Reckoner, knows his inner intention. But if after repenting, he once again starts taking usury; this act will lead him into Hell, even if he believes it to be prohibited. However, a person who takes interest believing it to be prohibited will not be condemned to Hell forever. (Allah-SWT knows the best).


According to the Holy Prophet-SW, the flesh formed by prohibited food deserves to burn in Fire, because it is a great sin. Ibn-e-Kathir and TafsIr-e-Mazhari have quoted a ‘Hadith’ saying that usury involves seventy sins of which the least is committing adultery with one's mother. May Allah-SWT protect us! Such a sin will take a person to Hellfire and if he believes usury to be lawful, it is downright disbelief and he will be condemned to Hell forever. For details with regard to difference between trading and usury Tafsir-e-Mazhari or Mu'arif al-Quran may be consulted.


Allah-SWT destroys usury and augments charity…………….. does not love any ingrate sinner

Allah-SWT encourages charity and wipes out usury. He dislikes and is furious with the non-believers who believe usury to be lawful, and sinners indulging in such a major offence. Such characters earn His-SWT Wrath. It must be remembered that those dealing in usury, whether on giving or receiving end, as well as the one who scribe the contract, are equally guilty. Moreover a usurer does not achieve the motive for which he indulges in such transactions, as Allah-SWT declares that He-SWT abolishes usury.


It is a common sight that betting renders many millionaires broke within no time. Wealth is not acquired for its own sake; neither are gold and silver edible commodities. The real purpose of wealth is to acquire things of bodily comfort. A usurer seldom spends on his own comforts and even if he does, Allah-SWT denies him the peace of mind, the inner comfort. What is the use of palatial abodes where one cannot sleep without taking tranquillizers? And lastly all the wealth amassed will be left behind and will surely invoke eternal torment in the ‘Akhirah\ (hereafter).


Tafsir-e-Mazhari quotes a ‘Hadith’ with reference to the Night of Ascension. The Holy Prophet-SW witnessed some people lying on the way. They had transparent bellies as big as large cellars, infested by snakes. Then from a distance came the sound of people rushing. These unfortunate souls tried their best to remove themselves from the way but their bellies would not budge an inch and they were over-urn by a mob. Angle Jibril-AS identified these victims as usurers, and the people over-running them as the hordes of Pharaoh, who are brought to the fire every morning and evening. They scream while running: ‘O Allah-SWT , let Yaurn al Qiyamahnever come!' According to another ‘Hadith’ the Holy Prophet-SW witnessed some people in a canal of blood. They would struggle to the bank but an angel would stuff their mouths with stones and they would stumble back into it. Angel Jibril-AS said that they were usurers. Such dreadful punishments are being inflicted in ‘Barzakh’ (interim period) while much more awaits them in the ‘Akhirah’.


As for the charity, Allah-SWT puts Barakah in the wealth off the donor. His heart is at peace and he experiences such pleasure in a shack, which a usurer yearns for in his palace. Charity will be increased a thousand times in the ‘Akhirah’, to an extent that a date given in Allah-SWT's Way will grow to the size of mount ‘Uhad’. People spending in His-SWT Way have never been seen broke; they are rather blessed with contentment. They live peaceful lives and their rewards in the ‘Akhirah’ are unimaginable. The highest reward, of course, is Allah-SWT's pleasure, which a usurer can never dream of!


Surely those who believe...And on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

The right and the only path leading to eternal bliss has been highlighted; it is to believe in Allah-SWT and to act righteously. Faith is consummated when one's conduct is governed by one's beliefs. All aspects of one's life, ethical as well as practical, must be controlled by the faith that one claims to have. And then one should exert all possible efforts in worships. He should establish Salat with full devotion and pay Zakat promptly and must perform all the physical and the monetary acts of worship devotedly. For such people await great rewards with Allah-SWT and they shall neither fear nor grieve. They are the ones who are grateful to Allah-SWT for His-SWT Blessings and hope for more in the future.


O you who believe!.... Do not wrong others, and you shall not be wronged.

The believers are persuaded to fear Allah-SWT and never fail to seek His-SWT Pleasure. Because usury has been declared prohibited by Him-SWT , so they must waive off all that is left. If they are true to their word and believed from the core of their hearts, they will understand that there is no alternative but to obey. However, if they do not give up usury, their faith is a hoax and they must get ready for war with Allah-SWT and His-SWT Prophet-SW! In other words, it is the duty of a Muslim ruler to forcibly abolish usury, and to declare Jihad against those involved in its transactions if they are a strong group, until they submit.


The same rule applies to Salat, Fasting and Zakat. Anyone who denies will be renegade, deserving death penalty. If they are a large group, it will be obligatory for the Muslim ruler to declare Jihad against them, until they submit or are slain If a person neither denies nor fulfils these obligations, he will be a malefactor and will be imprisoned until he submits. If he dies without repentance, no funeral Salat will be offered for him and he will not be buried in a Muslim graveyard.


Those who repent are entitled to receive the principal amount. So neither be cruel to others by claiming more, nor withhold the payment of principal amount to anyone. It proves a point that if a usurer fails to repent, his principal amount will also be confiscated. If the creditor finds the debtor in dire straits, he must be patient and kind by giving him respite to return the principal amount until affluence. And if the debtor is a destitute then remit him the debt altogether for the sake of Allah-SWT . This would be a source of earning great reward, if only one could understand!


If the debtor is in difficulty ... and none shall be wronged.

According to the Holy Prophet-SW, those who grant the poor respite in the payment of debts, or waive it off completely for Allah-SWT's sake shall be under the shade of His-SWT  ‘Arsh on the Day when there will be no other shade. So it is best to prepare for that day and reserve a place of protection. That is the Day when every individual will be requited and no one shall be wronged. Each person would be judged in terms of his precepts and practices and the requital will be totally fair, without the slightest error.