سورة البقرة   

Surah Name: Al-Baqarah Meaning:The Cow

  • Revealed at Madinah
  • The Longest Surah of the Quran.
  • This Surah, with reference to its revelation, is Madni and some of its Aayat and injunctions pertain to the very last period of Quranic revelation, but in order of placement it is in the very beginning. The Quran, an answer to the prayer contained in al-Fatihah, begins with this Surah. There was a basic difference in the life patterns of Makkah and Madinah. The addressees of Divine Revelation at Makkah in general, were the pagans and the idolaters; but at Madinah there were also people who considered themselves to be the nearest to Allah-SWT and the true followers of Prophet Musa--AS (Moses). Whereas, in reality, over the passage of time, they had not only forgotten his teachings, but had also distorted the Divine Scriptures. They had replaced worship with rituals, and true faith with absurd beliefs. Despite this they claimed to be on the right path. The Quran in the first place, highlighted the difference between belief and disbelief. Thus the very first Aayat of this Surah also spells out the fundamentals of Islam
  • Total Number of Rukū / Sections 40
  • Total Number of Āyāt / Parts 286
  • Sūrah / Chapter number 2
  • Rukū / Section 28 contains Āyāt / Parts 7
  • Siparah/ Volume 1 & 2


وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُواْ النِّسَاء فِي الْمَحِيضِ وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىَ يَطْهُرْنَ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللّهُ إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

Wayasaloonaka AAani almaheedi qul huwa athan fa(i)AAtaziloo a(l)nnisaa fee almaheedi wala taqraboohunna hatta yathurna faitha tatahharna fatoohunna minhaythu amarakumu Allahu inna Allaha yuhibbu a(l)ttawwabeena wayuhibbu almutatahhireen(a)

And they ask you about menstruation. Say, “It is a pollution, so keep away from women during menstruation. And do not draw near them until they are clean. But when they have cleansed themselves, go in unto them as enjoined by Allah-SWT .” Indeed Allah-SWT loves those who turn to Him-SWT in repentance and those who remain clean.


نِسَآؤُكُمْ حَرْثٌ لَّكُمْ فَأْتُواْ حَرْثَكُمْ أَنَّى شِئْتُمْ وَقَدِّمُواْ لأَنفُسِكُمْ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّكُم مُّلاَقُوهُ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Nisaokum harthun lakum fatoo harthakum anna shitum waqaddimoo lianfusikum wa(i)ttaqoo Allaha wa(i)AAlamoo annakum mulaqoohu wabashshiri almumineen(a)

Your women are tillage for you, so go to your tillage, as you like. And send (good deeds) before you for your souls. And remain conscious of Allah-SWT and know that you are to meet Him-SWT . And give good news to the believers.


وَلاَ تَجْعَلُواْ اللّهَ عُرْضَةً لِّأَيْمَانِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ وَتُصْلِحُواْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَاللّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Wala tajAAaloo Allaha AAurdatan liaymanikum an tabarroo watattaqoo watuslihoo bayna a(l)nnasi wa(A)llahu sameeAAun AAaleem(un)

And make not your oaths in the name of Allah-SWT impediments to virtue, righteousness and promotion of peace among people. And Allah-SWT hears and knows everything.


لاَّ يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِيَ أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ

La yuakhithukumu Allahu bi(a)llaghwi fee aymanikum walakin yuakhithukum bimakasabat quloobukum wa(A)llahu ghafoorun haleem(un)

Allah-SWT will not take you to task for your thoughtless oaths. But He-SWT will call you to account for the intentions in your hearts. And Allah-SWT is oft Forgiving, Most Forbearing.


لِّلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِن نِّسَآئِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَإِنْ فَآؤُوا فَإِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Lillatheena yuloona min nisaihim tarabbusu arbaAAati ashhurin fain faoo fainna Allaha ghafoorun raheem(un)

Those who swear to abstain from their wives, have four months of grace. If they return, then Allah-SWT is Forgiving, Most Merciful.


وَإِنْ عَزَمُواْ الطَّلاَقَ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Wain AAazamoo a(l)ttalaqa fainna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleem(un)

And if they resolve a divorce, then Allah-SWT is Hearer and Knower.


وَالْمُطَلَّقَاتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ ثَلاَثَةَ قُرُوَءٍ وَلاَ يَحِلُّ لَهُنَّ أَن يَكْتُمْنَ مَا خَلَقَ اللّهُ فِي أَرْحَامِهِنَّ إِن كُنَّ يُؤْمِنَّ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ إِنْ أَرَادُواْ إِصْلاَحًا وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ وَاللّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكُيمٌ

Wa(a)lmutallaqatu yatarabbasna bianfusihinna thalathata qurooin wala yahillu lahunna an yaktumna ma khalaqa Allahu fee arhamihinna in kunna yuminna bi(A)llahi wa(a)lyawmi alakhiri wabuAAoolatuhunna ahaqqu biraddihinna fee thalika in aradoo islahan walahunna mithlu allathee AAalayhinna bi(a)lmaAAroofi wali(l)rrijali AAalayhinna darajatun wa(A)llahu AAazeezun hakeem(un)

The divorced women shall withhold themselves for three monthly courses. And it is not legitimate for them to conceal what Allah-SWT may have created in their wombs, if they believe in Allah-SWT and the Last Day. And their husbands have a greater right to take them back in that period, if they desire reconciliation. And they have similar rights (over men) as they have over them according to rules. And men are a degree above them.


In The Name of Allah-SWT the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

The Rules Of Coition

And when marriage is mentioned, the question of physical nearness to the woman will certainly arise and the condition of the woman has to be considered vis-a-vis coition with a menstruating woman. Allah-SWT Commands His-SWT Prophet-SW to let the Muslims know that menstruation is an impurity and copulation with women is forbidden until they are cleansed; and that copulation is permitted only the way Allah-SWT has enjoined, i.e. in the vulva. It must be remembered that Allah-SWT loves those who repent and beg for forgiveness i.e. if someone overwhelmed by his sexual drive commits the sin of copulating during his wife's menses, he must beg for Allah-SWT’s Forgiveness, and pay alms to the poor if possible, as it is the best form of atonement. Allah-SWT loves those who keep themselves clean, who abstain from all that is forbidden and strive in His-SWT obedience.


Wives are the tillage for husbands and the primary goal of conjugal act is begetting children for the preservation of human race rather than carnal indulgence. So a man may enter his tilth in any way he wants and may adopt any posture in doing so but must remember that the entry is permitted only wherein the seed is sown for the offspring and not anywhere else. Moreover the sperm does not penetrate when a woman is menstruating and it is pollution. Nor does any filthy, unnatural practice fulfil the aim of procreation. The aim is not to indulge in carnal pleasures but to reform the society without losing sight of moral and spiritual ends for the eternal bliss.


Fear Allah-SWT under all circumstances. Men must not think that by marriage they have taken possession of a woman merely to seek reckless pleasure. The women have their rights over men, being human beings. It is very important to observe the limits set by Allah-SWT even during a sexual act. It must be remembered that everyone has to stand before Allah-SWT for Reckoning. O Prophet-SW! Give glad tidings to those believing in the Greatness of Allah-SWT , who do not allow their emotions to violate the limits set by Him-SWT , and convey to them the promise of Divine rewards.


The Name of Allah-SWT and an oath in His-SWT Name should not be made a barrier in the embellishment of social life, lest one should say that he would have certainly done a certain good deed had he not sworn upon Allah-SWT in anger or in annoyance not to do it. If the action is noble, or it is a matter of mutual reconciliation amongst people, it must be done. Allah-SWT knows and is Witness to everything. Beware of your words and ensure that your mind and heart are unpolluted. Think virtuously, speak graciously and act righteously.


Never Swear On A Sin

If you have lied inadvertently or have sworn upon a lie mistaking it to be a truth, it is His-SWT Grace and Mercy to condone and not punish you. But for maters, in which you are determined to prove falsehood as truth on oath, knowing it to be so, Allah-SWT will take you to task, although He-SWT may grant some respite. Never take liberty with His-SWT Clemency, when He-SWT grips, He-SWT grips hard. Similarly if a man swears that he will not go to his wife, he has a period of four months. If they re-unite during this period it is fine but if they decide to separate, Allah-SWT is all Hearing, all Knowing. This situation is called Aila’, having four options. Firstly, a man does not fix any period and swears that he will not seek her; secondly he fixes a period of four months; thirdly a period of more than four months is fixed and lastly a period of less than four months is fixed. In the first three situations if he breaks his oath before the lapse of four months and goes unto his wife, he must expiate for his oath and his marriage remains valid. But if the four months have passed, the divorce has taken place; he cannot revert to his wife without a renewal of marriage contract. In the last situation if he breaks his oath, he will expiate, but if he does not, even then the marriage remains valid, as the period is less than four months (Bayan al Quran).


If the divorce has taken place, a woman must wait for three menstrual periods i.e., a woman whose marriage is consummated, and she has periods, and is free, not a bondswoman. If in such a woman is divorced, she cannot remarry before the lapse of three periods. It does not behove a believing woman to conceal her pregnancy or her menstruation. And if the divorce is revocable, which will be discussed later, the husband has the right to have her back without the renewal of marriage contract, provided that his intention is of reformation and not persecution, though reunion will still be valid. Just as men enjoy right over women so do the women have rights over men. Yes, men do have a degree of superiority over them, as by virtue of her physical structure a woman finds security under male protection. And the real Sovereignty belongs to Allah-SWT , before Whom both men and women are accountable. It is He-SWT Who created this system, with wisdom.


Woman And Islam

Society originates from a man and a woman, spreading out into families, tribes and nations. To beautify the social system, Islam works on the reformation of its very foundation, by establishing the status of each sex vis-a-vis their rights and responsibilities. Equality in Islam is that situation whereby everyone carries out his duties and gets due rights. As for the Akhirah, the deciding factor shall be Taqwa. There shall be surely such women who would excel over millions of men in Akhirah.


Before Islam, a woman was taken as an item of household use. She was traded, and also passed on to the heirs of her master as part of the legacy. The Europeans were not even prepared to accept her as a human being, while in India; she was burnt alive on her husband’s pyre. In 586 A.D. it was decided in France after great hesitation that though woman was also human, but her only purpose was to serve man and be his handmaid. Today, in stark contrast to those times, no pain is spared to establish her rule over men! Movements of inequality are run in the name of equality, giving unbridled freedom to women and pushing the whole society towards destruction.


It is only Islam that got the glory of woman acknowledged as a mother, wife, sister, and a daughter. Together with her duties, her rights were first spelled out, giving her a vital role in the building up of the society. She was made a shareholder in the inheritance and given the right to reject an offer of marriage on reaching the age of puberty. If she does not accept it, the marriage will be invalid. Similarly, upon being divorced or widowed, she retains her freedom and cannot be forced into marriage. Besides, spending on the wife by the husband is declared as worship. If the husband does not fulfil his obligations towards her, she has the right to go to the court to compel the husband to either fulfil her rights, or else to divorce her.


Given these rights, she too has not been allowed freelancing but has been kept under the protection of man. To build up the family and upbringing her children, a gigantic task by itself, she has been spared the pangs of earning a livelihood and in the process becoming an item of entertainment for men. Such an exposure amounts to transgression on her rights and does not only lead to her depredation but to the destruction of the entire society.


Allah-SWT has determined the rights of everyone and has commanded to execute them in a decent manner. By granting superiority to man He-SWT has alluded to the fact that a woman is weaker than a man and where she errs, it is the responsibility of man to overlook and find a way of amity. In fact all troubles stem from the fact that people demand their rights without discharging their duties. The beauty of a social system lies in the positive attitude of an individual whereby he fulfils his duties diligently towards others and demands his rights with grace and tolerance. This principle is effective from an individual to a government and is a sure guarantee of peace and tranquillity.