سورة البقرة   

Surah Name: Al-Baqarah Meaning:The Cow

  • Revealed at Madinah
  • The Longest Surah of the Quran.
  • This Surah, with reference to its revelation, is Madni and some of its Aayat and injunctions pertain to the very last period of Quranic revelation, but in order of placement it is in the very beginning. The Quran, an answer to the prayer contained in al-Fatihah, begins with this Surah. There was a basic difference in the life patterns of Makkah and Madinah. The addressees of Divine Revelation at Makkah in general, were the pagans and the idolaters; but at Madinah there were also people who considered themselves to be the nearest to Allah-SWT and the true followers of Prophet Musa--AS (Moses). Whereas, in reality, over the passage of time, they had not only forgotten his teachings, but had also distorted the Divine Scriptures. They had replaced worship with rituals, and true faith with absurd beliefs. Despite this they claimed to be on the right path. The Quran in the first place, highlighted the difference between belief and disbelief. Thus the very first Aayat of this Surah also spells out the fundamentals of Islam
  • Total Number of Rukū / Sections 40
  • Total Number of Āyāt / Parts 286
  • Sūrah / Chapter number 2
  • Rukū / Section 12 contains Āyāt / Parts 7
  • Siparah/ Volume 1 & 2


قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Qul man kana AAaduwwan lijibreela fainnahu nazzalahu AAala qalbika biithni Allahi musaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi wahudan wabushra lilmumineen(a)

Say, "Who is an enemy to Jibrail-AS! For he brings down (revelation) to your Qalb by Allah's-SWT leave, a con­firmation of what was (revealed) before, a guidance and good news for the believers".


مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلّهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَافِرِينَ

Man kana AAaduwwan lillahi wamalaikatihi warusulihi wajibreela wameekala fainna Allaha AAaduwwun lilkafireen(a)

Who is an enemy of Allah-SWT and His-SWT Angels and His-SWT Messengers and Jibril-AS and Mikail-AS, so Allah-SWT is an enemy of the non-believers.


وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَا إِلاَّ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Walaqad anzalna ilayka ayatin bayyinatin wama yakfuru biha illa alfasiqoon(a)

We-SWT have sent to you clear Ayat and none but the Fasiqin reject them.


أَوَكُلَّمَا عَاهَدُواْ عَهْداً نَّبَذَهُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Awakullama AAahadoo AAahdan nabathahu fareequn minhum bal aktharuhum layuminoon(a)

Is it not that every time they make a promise, a party of them set it aside? In fact, most of them do not believe.


وَلَمَّا جَاءهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللّهِ وَرَاء ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

Walamma jaahum rasoolun min AAindi Allahi musaddiqun lima maAAahum nabatha fareequn mina allatheena ootoo alkitaba kitaba Allahi warathuhoorihim kaannahum la yaAAlamoon(a)

And whenever came to them a Messenger from Allah-SWT , confirm­ing what they already had, a party of People of the Book flung the Book of Allah-SWT behind their backs, as if they did not know.


وَاتَّبَعُواْ مَا تَتْلُواْ الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـكِنَّ الشَّيْاطِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولاَ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ وَمَا هُم بِضَآرِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلاَ يَنفَعُهُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُواْ لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاَقٍ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْاْ بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ لَوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ

WaittabaAAoo ma tatloo a(l)shshayateenu AAala mulki sulaymana wama kafara sulaymanu walakinna a(l)shshayateena kafaroo yuAAallimoona a(l)nnasa alssihra wama onzila AAala almalakayni bibabila haroota wamaroota wama yuAAallimani min ahadin hatta yaqoola innama nahnu fitnatun fala takfur fayataAAallamoona minhuma ma yufarriqoona bihi bayna almari wazawjihi wama hum bidarreena bihi min ahadin illa biithni Allahi wayataAAallamoona ma yadurruhum walayanfaAAuhum walaqad AAalimoo lamani ishtarahu ma lahu fee alakhirati min khalaqin walabisa ma sharaw bihi anfusahum law kanoo yaAAlamoon(a)

And they followed what the devils recited in Sulaiman's-AS kingdom. It is not that Sulaiman-AS did disbelieve but the devils indulged in disbe­lief teaching people magic and that, which was revealed to the two Angels Harut-AS and Marut-AS at Babul. But the two (angels) did not teach anyone without warn­ing, "We are only a test, so do not indulge in disbelief." And from them, people learnt that which caused separation between hus­band and wife. But they could thus harm none except by Allah's-SWT leave. And they learnt that which harmed them and not what bene­fited them. And they knew for sure that such traders shall have no share in the Akhirah. And evil was the price for which they sold their souls, if they only knew!


وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُواْ واتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّه خَيْرٌ لَّوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Walaw annahum amanoo waittaqaw lamathoobatun min AAindi Allahi khayrun law kanoo yaAAlamoon(a)

And if they had believed and guarded themselves from evil, they would have got a far better reward from Allah-SWT , if they only knew!


In The Name of Allah-SWT the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

Say, "Who is ... a guidance and good news for believers".

When the scholars of Bani Israil failed on the front of logic and tradition, the situation evolved into a Mubahalah. Failing at that too, they had no option but to accept the truth, yet they were not willing to do so. Now they came up with another excuse that they would have certainly believed in the Holy Prophet-SW, being sure that he was incontrovertible, but there was a hurdle! He claims that the revelations are brought to him by Archangel Jibril-AS, who used to bring destruction to their nation and hardships for their ancestors. Had it been some other angel, for instance Mikail-AS, they would have certainly accepted the Message. Since they did not get along well with Angel Jibril-AS, they could not follow the teachings of the Holy Prophet-SW.


All this was fabricated by the scholars of Bani Israil to satisfy the common ignorant Jew, but Allah-SWT exposed their lie by revealing these Ayat. Addressing the scholars, Allah-SWT says that these enemies of Jibril-AS must be asked whether they have to develop a relationship with him or have to simply accept the Message he brings unto the Qalb of the Holy Prophet-SW by Allah's-SWT command. Here the term "Bi izn-Allah" (by Allah-SWT's leave) makes it clear that it is Allah-SWT's Message and the angel is deputed only to convey, while the venue of its descent is the most Sacred Qalb of the Holy Prophet-SW.


Mind and Qalb

The question may be asked that when the centre of knowledge is the human mind, why is this revelation sent unto the Qalb? Be informed that knowledge is of two kinds: physical and spiritual. The function of the mind is to learn, store and apply the knowledge of material or physical sciences. The physical body is made of matter, so its requirements are material. The brain is also material. It determines the needs of the body and finds ways of fulfilling them. This is the reason why faith is not the prerequisite for learning physical skills; a non-believer can also become a doctor, a scientist or an engineer.


The second category is knowledge of normative or spiritual sciences. The spirit belongs to the Realm of Command; the mind does not have the capability to attain the knowledge related to that Realm. It is the function of Qalb located inside the physical heart, a vital organ of the Spirit. The knowledge about Allah-SWT's Greatness, His-SWT Attributes, the Transcendental Truths, Spirit, Barzakh, Akhirah, Life after Life, the Reckoning, the concept of Reward and Punishment, Paradise and Hell, can only be acquired through the spiritual sciences and the centre of this knowledge is the Qalb. If the brain could perceive this knowledge, the most superior brain in the world was that of the Holy Prophet-SW, and the Message would have been revealed unto his noble mind. But the point of descent of Divine Revelation is his Qalb, which is the purest of all. Thus to acquire the knowledge of these sciences, doors of the Qalb have to be opened. The sublimity of Divine Revelation is evident by the fact that it is addressed to the purest Qalb of the Holy Prophet-SW, as it is beyond the access of the mind. In fact, it reforms the human mind; and it is beyond any mind to reform Allah-SWT's Message.


The Quran As A Verifier

The Quran corroborates and confirms all the preceding Divine Scriptures in two ways. Firstly, it re-emphasises the topics discussed by the previous Scriptures, such as the Supreme Being and His-SWT Attributes, the Day of Judgement, the Reckoning or the Paradise and Hell and so on. The second verification is circumstantial. All preceding Books had augured the raising of the Holy Prophet-SW and the revelation of the Final Book. Thus his raising and the revelation of the Quran have actually proved their prophecy as true. Another fact clearly highlighted here is that no Book will be revealed after the one revealed to the Holy Prophet-SW. Had it been so, the Quran, in addition to confirming the previous Books, would also have given information on the ones to come, in advance. But it only mentions the past and dismisses the possibility of any later Divine Revelation. Any future claimant would, therefore, be an impostor.


The Quran guides the mankind to the correct path in the most accurate man­ner. If the entire social structure and the systems of life adopted by people throughout history are studied in comparison to it, it will be seen that the best code of life is the one offered by the Quran. This is the only code, or guidance, which provides instructions from birth till the Akhirah, whereas all the rest are silent on events beyond death. The Quran gives out to its believers spiritual ecstasy and glad tiding that unfold to them pleasures of the Akhirah, providing hem a degree of satisfaction and peace undiminished by worldly upheavals.


And whoever is an enemy ...so Allah-SWT is an enemy of the non-believers.

These were the miracles of this great Revelation, which the Bani Israil could never accept because they were suffering from infidelity and animosity with Allah-SWT . He-SWT declares that whoever turns against Him-SWT and becomes a foe of the angels, His-SWT Messengers, Angels Jibril-AS and Mikail-AS, He Himself-SWT is the enemy of such non-believers. In other words the real cause is enmity with Allah-SWT and this indeed is the reason of hostility towards His-SWT angels and Prophets-AS.


Similarly, whosoever is an enemy of any of Allah-SWT ’s chosen people, in fact is the enemy of every one of them, rather of Allah-SWT Himself-SWT . According to the Hadlth: "I have two ministers in the heavens and two on the earth; the former are Jibril-AS and Mikail-AS and the latter are Abu Bakr RAU and 'Umar-RAU. There­fore, anyone who is hostile to any of these two great Companions-RAU will an­tagonize Allah-SWT . He-SWT is the enemy of those who indulge in disbelief, and as a result of His-SWT wrath, they develop a hatred for the Aulia, His-SWT Messengers and His-SWT Angels. On the contrary, when Allah-SWT is pleased with someone, He-SWT instils in him the love of the Aulia and takes him to their audience, i.e. He-SWT blesses him with pious friends.


We have sent to you ... most of them do not believe,

And He-SWT revealed not one but many clear signs; the Quran by itself is a great miracle. Apart from it there are countless miracles of the Holy Prophet-SW. The non-believers do not deny these out of any logical reasoning, but their hearts have lost the capacity to accept the truth because of their wickedness. These Jews have been breaking their covenants generation after generation. When­ever Allah-SWT took a promise, most of them broke it and very few practically remained on the right path. They are in the same state now, and despite the covenant in the Torah, very few believe in the Holy Prophet-SW. The majority of them are rebellious.


And whenever came to them ...as if they did not know.

Now the greatest of all Messengers of Allah-SWT has arrived, who corroborates their Book. If they deny him, what will they do with the prediction made about him in the Torah, which they claim to be true? They do know the reality and recognize the Holy Prophet-SW. His qualities and character traits, even his physical features, have been described in their Book. But see how they ignore its teachings and pretend as if they do not know anything. Instead of following the Holy Prophet-SW they are after learning the skills once practised by the devils during the era of Prophet Sulaiman-AS.


And they followed ...if 'they only knew!

With genuine there is always a counterfeit, so much so that there liars who claim to be God, impostors claiming to be Prophets and imitators claiming to be saints. Similarly, during the auspicious reign of Prophet Sulaiman-AS, who ruled not only over the people and the Jinn, but also over the beasts, the birds and the winds. Many zealots came up with the idea of controlling the Jinn. Satan, taking advantage of the situation, taught them incantations. Whosoever recited these would receive all possible assistance from Satan, so that this demonology could flourish.


The Basis of Magic and its Effects

This is what became the basis of magic, which is practised even today. It stems from disbelief and atheism. The words used are usually blasphemous. Even when Quranic Ayat are used, they are scribed in a forbidden manner, for example, with menstrual blood. Moreover the sorcerers always prefer to remain unclean, an act liked by Satan. Just as there are two methods used in magic, so are there two types of effects it produces. Firstly, it affects the vision or the power of imagination and causes various hallucinations. In reality there is nothing, just like the magicians of the Pharaoh, who had cast a spell over the eyes of the spectators. Because of its effect, Prophet Musa-AS took those ropes as snakes crawling on the ground. In fact the ropes were merely ropes, but the faculty of imagination had been influenced to observe these as snakes. The second possible effect of magic is metamorphosis, i.e. changing the victim entirely in nature such as to transform a person into a statue, or an animal. It is a long discussion whether metamorphosis is possible or not; most scholars agree that it is not. Allah-SWT knows best.


In short, the Bani Israil ignored the Divine Books and took to Satanic guidance until Allah-SWT deputed two angels to Babylonia, who informed people of the dif­ference between magic and the Divine Words, and also of the evil influences of magic. The teachings of Allah-SWT ’s Prophets-AS generally highlighted that magic was a malpractice. But to elaborate on its forms and other details was not commensurate with their high office. From the angels who manage the affair of the universe, Allah-SWT appointed two for this purpose. The Prophets-AS mission pertains to Shari'ah and guidance. For example, the Holy Prophet-SW proclaimed gambling as forbidden, and also explained the reason that in all games of chance loss was sure while gain was only a probability. But how the gambling would be actually arranged, with cards or with something else, was not discussed. It would have amounted to making people aware of the techniques, and any vicious mind could actually utilize them to gamble. Similarly, elaborating on the techniques or methods of magic does not befit the status of any Prophet-AS. Therefore, Allah-SWT assigned this job to Harut-AS and Marut-AS, the angels in human form. Evidence was provided that they were the angels, just as the Prophethood is substantiated by miracles. They warned the people against practicing witchcraft. They informed them that this knowledge neither originates from Prophet Sulaiman-AS nor does it befit any Prophet-AS. It is completely Satanic. They also explained the details of the black art; the effects of various techniques applied, and also clarified the prevailing misconceptions about miracle and sorcery. The latter was the practice and creation of the Jinn and the devils.


The Difference between Witchcraft and Miracle

In witchcraft the cause is there, but is concealed from the spectators, while a miracle is above all the causes, and is directly a Divine Act. This is a subtle matter, and beyond perception of the common man. A simpler explanation is that a miracle is manifested to support the Divine Code of Life, to confirm the Prophethood, and to establish Allah-SWT's Rule, whereas a sorcerer or an enchanter always strives to establish his own superiority. Likewise the action manifested for the revival of faith will be a Karamah, while an extraordinary act aimed at establishing personal authority would be nothing but witchcraft. The former would be based on a pure and chaste precept while the latter stands on impurity of words and actions.


See Allah-SWT's Mercy! He assigned two angels for educating people on right and wrong, who stayed amongst them for as long as He-SWT wished. See also the demonology and perversion of Bani Israil. Those angels, before telling the detail of what constituted magic, always warned the people that it was plain disbelief and that they has been sent as a trial for them, so beware of becoming non-believers by indulging in the nefarious formula of magic.


But the Bani Israil would specially learn the love charms by which to create differences between man and wife, to promote illicit amour. And this the Jews continued till the noble period of the Holy Prophet-SW. It is ironical that this business is flourishing amongst the Muslims today, rendering many of them faithless. It must, however, be remembered that a sorcerer cannot do anything that he wants, nor should anyone fear his magic. They can do no harm unless Allah-SWT permits. In other words, if Allah-SWT withdraws His-SWT protection from a person, he becomes vulnerable to the evil tricks of the sorcerers. But if a person has faith and follows the tenets of Islam, Allah-SWT will surely protect him and no. harm can come to him. When Asim bin Labid, the Jew, cast a spell on the Holy Prophet-SW, Allah-SWT informed His Prophet-SW about the whole plot. Soon, all the witchcraft used like the comb, his hair and dates were recovered from the well and the well was cleaned off.


Effects of Magic

This proves that magic does have an effect even on the Prophets-AS. Everyone is subjected to its effects in the same way as one's appetite or thirst is subjected to natural laws. But magic cannot harm the Prophets-AS and falls flat, likewise, a single Tawajjuh of an accomplished Shaikh can wash away the effects of spells of the sorcerers, knitted over a lifetime. But the unfortunate people who ignore Allah-SWT are always ruled by sorcerers like the Hindus trapped in the cobwebs of their Pundits, or the fallacious sects who are always the captives of witchcraft. These innovators spend a lifetime in learning such skills, which may result in some temporal gain, but always end up in harm and eternal disgrace. No real benefit can ever be had from them under any circumstances.


The Bani Israil also know very well that whosoever spends his time in acquiring the knowledge of the demonology instead of learning the Divine Book, has no share in the eternal bliss and is condemned to perpetual humiliation. What a horrifying fate they choose for themselves! Indeed all their endeavours shall be of no consequence and will lead them nowhere save Hell. Had they opted for righteousness; had they believed in and followed the teachings of the Holy Prophet-SW, they would have certainly found a generous reward awaiting them in the Akhirah. This discussion brings out another lesson. Anyone who lives against the Holy Prophet's-SW Sunnah is simply ignorant, regardless of the fact that he is known as an intellectual in the society. The essence of all wisdom and acumen lies in adherence to the Holy Prophet-SW.